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who prosecuted the siege with ardour and alacrity. Large reinforcements of Canadians and Indians having come to the assistance of the garrison, the French determined to give Johnson battle.

The battle began about nine o'clock; and in less than an hour the French and Indians were completely routed. This decided the fate of the fort, which surrendered the next day. The prisoners, six hundred, were sent to New-York; the women and children were allowed to be carried to Montreal.

But the reduction of these forts, advantageous as they were, bore little weight in crushing Canada, so long as Quebec remained unconquered. Admiral Saunders, as soon as the ice permitted, sailed up the St. Lawrence to Quebec, with an army of eight thousand men, under Wolfe.

A landing was effected, in June, on the island of Orleans a little below Quebec. He took possession of Point Levi, whence his heavy batteries much injured: the town, but did no injury to the fortification. Wolfe then determined to cross the Montmorency, and attack the French commander, Montcalm, in his entrenchments. An attack was made; but, on account of disobedience to his orders, he was obliged to retreat, repass the river, and return to the island of Orleans. An attempt was made to destroy the French fleet. This proved abortive, on account of their secure situation.

It was then determined to make good, if possible, a landing above the town. The troops, for this purpose, embarked on board the vessels. Part were landed at Point Levi; and a part carried up the river. The part of the city which faced the country was but slightly fortified.

Montcalm was afraid to quit his situation, because the English troops, having the command of the river, might seize the ground where he was then encamped, before he could return, should he go to oppose their landing.

The British troops, to a considerable amount, for the purpose of deception, ascended seven or eight miles

above where it was intended to land. Under cover of the night, the boats fell silently down with the tide, undiscovered by the sentinels; the ships arriving in season to protect them, if necessary.

There was but one path up the precipice, and that narrow and cragged. By the assistance of branches of trees and craggy projections of which they could lay hold, at day light, on the thirteenth of September, the troops had all ascended, and formed in good order on the heights of Abraham.

Montcalm was immediately convinced that he could not avoid a battle; and he accordingly prepared himself for one. He crossed from the Beauport side, with his whole force, to meet his antagonist. Fifteen hundred Indians he stationed among the bushes. His regulars formed his left; the troops of the colony and two regular battalions formed his right. The rest of the Canadians and Indians he stretched on his right, in order to outflank the left wing of the English army.

General Monkton commanded the right wing of the English; General Murray the left. The Louisburg grenadiers covered the right flank; the light infantry of Howe, covered the rear and left.

The battle commenced. Inattentive to the irregular fire of the Indians, Wolfe ordered his troops to reserve themselves for the main body. The French advanced and began the action with the main troops. The Engfish did not fire till within forty yards; and the execution was immense.

Wolfe, leading his men, was wounded in the wrist; round which he wrapped his handkerchief. Soon after, he received a shot in the groin, of which he took no notice. He next received a ball in the breast, and suffered himself, with reluctance, to be borne to the rear.

Monkton then took the command. He immediately was mortally wounded; and the command fell upon Townshend. About the same time, Montcalm was mortally wounded; and his second in command, Senezergus, fell also.

The centre of the French army began to give way.

The broad swords of the Highlanders completed the confusion. The French fled to the city or over the St. Charles. The victory was complete. A thousand prisoners were taken; and a thousand killed in the battle and pursuit. The remainder retired to Point au Tremble. The killed and wounded of the English were less than six hundred.

Wolfe lived long enough to die with contentment. The cry of" they run," was heard. He eagerly inquired "who run?" The last agonies of the immortal hero were sweetened with the response of, "The French run."" Then," said he, "I die contented:" and he immediately respired his last.

Montcalm,-less fortunate, but not less brave, expired with equal heroism. Informed that his wound was mortal, he expressed his satisfaction. When told he could live but a few hours: "So much the better," said he, "I shall not live to see the surrender of Quebec."

Five days after, the city capitulated; the inhabitants to enjoy their civil and religious rights, and remain neutral during the war. The city was garrisoned, under the command of Murray; and the fleet sailed.

An attempt was made by Monsieur Levi, to retake Quebec in the winter; but it failed. In the Spring of 1760, Monsieur Levi made another attempt, with six frigates and a large army. General Murray had more strongly fortified the city, during the winter, than it was before: but as many of his troops were diseased with the scurvy, as the inhabitants were unfriendly to him, and many hardships must be endured from a siege; he resolved to give the enemy battle..

On the twenty-eighth of April, he marched out against Levi, with all his effective men, amounting to only three thousand. After an engagement of an hour and three quarters he was forced to retreat, with the loss of a thousand men; the French having lost more than double

that number.

Levi pursued his purpose of compelling the city to surrender before the arrival of an English fleet; nor with less activity did Murray prepare for defence. About

the middle of May a fleet arrived, which immediately took, destroyed, or dispersed the French fleet. Another English fleet arriving soon after the siege was raised.

The principal object was now the reduction of Montreal. For this purpose General Amherst, having collected a large army, proceeded down lake Ontario to that place; and on the same day General Murray arrived by water, with all the forces he could command, excepting a sufficiency to garrison Quebec. Montreal was in no situation to resist.

A capitulation took place; and soon after all Canada was surrendered to Great Britain; the troops to be transported to France, and the Canadians to enjoy their religious and civil rights.

Thus ended a long, expensive, and bloody contest, in which it was for a great while doubtful, whether what are now the United States should continue the colonies of Great Britain, or become subject to France. Great indeed was the diffusion of joy in Great Britain, from the pride of supposed superiority, and the presumed advantages of her conquest; but far greater was that of the colonies, who expected now a release from the calamities of war and from the massacres of the Indians.

The Cherokees, however, carried on, for two years, a war with Georgia and South-Carolina, which finally ended in their defeat by Colonel Grant, in 1761; when a treaty of peace was made.

Peace between France and England took place in 1762; the definitive articles of the treaty were signed the next year.


The Revolution.

Commencement of the causes which led to the Revolution-Colonial Congress Opposition to the stamp act—Its repeal-Imposition of new duties by parliament-Opposition of the colonies-Repeal of the duties, excepting on tea-Affray of March 5th, 1770-Destruction of tea in Boston-Boston port bill-Meeting of Congress-Engagements at Lexington and Concord-Surrender of Ticonderoga and Crown Point-Battle of Bunker hill-Washington appointed commander in chief--He arrives at Cambridge-Surrender of fort St. Johns, and Montreal-Unsuccessful attack of Quebec-Death of Montgomery--Burning of Norfolk, by lord Dunmore--Boston evacuated-Declaration of Independence-Engagement on Long-Island -Retreat from the Island-Forts Washington and Lee surrendered to the British-General despondency-Capture of the Hessians at Trenton-Battle of Brandywine-Howe enters Philadelphia--Battle of Germantown-Battle of Bennington-Surrender of the British army under Burgoyne-Treaty of Alliance with France-Battle of Monmouth-Savannah surrendered to the British--Ineffectual attempt to recover Savannah-Stoney Point taken by Wayne-Penob scot expedition-Defeat of the Five Nations-Surrender of Charleston to Clinton-Battle of Camden—and of King's Mountain-Treason of Arnold-Fate of Andre-Predatory warfare of Arnold in Virginia-Battle of Cowpens-Battle of Guilford-Battle of Eutaw Springs-Surrender of the British army under Cornwallis-NewLondon burnt by Arnold-Naval engagement in the West IndiesCommissioners appointed to negotiate a peace-Peace concludedArmy disbanded-Washington's resignation.

IN the year 1764, the parliament of England passed an act, the preamble to which begins thus: "Whereas it is just and necessary, that a revenue be raised in America, for defraying the expenses of defending, protecting and securing the same, &c." The act then ceeds to lay a duty on clayed sugar, indigo, coffee, silk, molasses, calicoes, &c. being the produce of a colony not under the dominion of his majesty. To this the colonists submitted; though not without complaint and



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