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produced corresponding efforts by the enemy at Kingston, until several large ships were built in both ports, carrying from 20 to 60 guns. The American fleet was commanded by Commodore Chauncey, and the British by Commodore Yeo.

As each force became predominant, the command of the lake was surrendered to such force; and such was the skill and sagacity of the commanders, that the inferior force could never be brought into a general action. A partial engagement once took place, but with little effect, as the British commander felt unwilling to hazard such a stake, and took advantage of circumstances to make his port. One of the British vessels, ready for sea at the close of the war, mounted nearly one hundred guns; and two of the largest class of vessels in the world, are now on the stocks at Sacket's Harbour.

In a sortie from fort Erie, under the command of General Jacob Brown, after a severe engagement, the British were defeated, with the loss of nearly a thousand, in killed, wounded, and prisoners. The American loss, in killed and wounded was upwards of fivehundred.

October 8. A committee to whom was referred, in the legislature of Massachusetts, the speech of the governor, Mr. Strong, made a report, recommending the organization of ten thousand troops, for the defence of the sea-board; and the appointment of delegates, to meet such delegates as may be appointed by other states, to confer "on the subjects of their public grievances, and upon the best means of preserving their resources, and of defence against the enemy; and to devise and suggest for adoption, by those respective states, such measures, as they may deem expedient; and also to take measures, if they shall think proper, for procuring a convention of delegates from all the United States, in order to revise the constitution thereof, &c."

In consequence of these resolutions, which were adopted, delegates were chosen in Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode-Island. Vermont refused, and New

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Hampshire neglected to send. Two delegates were, however, elected by counties in the latter State, and one in the former. On the 15th of December the delegates met at Hartford. On the fourth of January they made a long report, concluding with the recommendation of several resolutions for altering the constitution; so that Representatives and direct taxes should be in proportion to the number of free persons; that no new state be admitted into the union, without the concurrence of two thirds of both houses of Congress; that no embargo be laid for more than sixty days; that commercial intercourse shall not be interdicted, nor war declared, without the concurrence of two-thirds of both houses of Congress; that no person hereafter naturalized shall be eligible as Senator or Representative; that no President shall be twice elected, nor a President twice chosen from the same state in succession.

Provision was also made for calling another convention, should the government of the United States refuse permission to the New-England states, separately or in concert, to assume upon themselves the defence of their territory, holding for the expense a reasonable proportion of the public taxes; or should peace not take place; or should the defence of the New-England states be neglected by Congress as since the war.

Peace soon after taking place, another convention was not called. The resolutions for amending the constitution were submitted to the Legislatures of the several states, and rejected with general unanimity.

January 15, 1815. The frigate President, Commodore Decatur, sailed from New-York on the 14th, and was the next day pursued by four frigates and a brig of the enemy. An engagement took place between the foremost of the pursuing vessels, the Endymion and the President. The Endymion, after a severe battle of two hours, was silenced and beat off. The Pomone and Tenedos, in three hours came up with the President, the other British vessels being close astern, and the President was obliged to surrender.

About this period the Constitution, commanded by Commodore Stuart, fell in with the Cyane and Levant,

two British sloops of war, on the coast of Africa, and captured both in succession. The Levant was, however, retaken before arriving in port.

A very large British force entered Lake Ponchartrain, near New-Orleans, early in December, defeating after an obstinate conflict, the small American naval force stationed there. The British forces were under the command of General Packenham; the American under that of Major General Andrew Jackson.

Several skirmishes took place, in which the British were the far greater sufferers. On Sunday morning early, January 8, a grand attack was made by the British on the American troops in their entrenchments. After an engagement of upwards of an hour, the enemy were cut to pieces to a degree almost beyond example, and fled in confusion, leaving on the field of battle their dead and wounded.

The loss of the British was, killed seven hundred, wounded fourteen hundred, prisoners five hundred, making twenty-six hundred in the total. The American loss in the engagement was seven only killed, and six wounded!

Sir Edward Packenham and Major General Gibbs, were among the slain. The attack was not renewed, and in a short time after the British left the coast.

February 11. An English sloop of war, the Favourite, arrived at New-York, bringing the joyful intelligence that a treaty of peace had been signed at Ghent, between the American and British commissioners, on the twenty-fourth of December. On the 17th the treaty was ratified by the President and Senate. To those who from the beginning had opposed the war, and to those who had been its strenuous supporters, the news of peace was received with equal, and with the highest satisfaction.

None of the subjects for which the war was avowedly declared were mentioned in the treaty; which, besides the common expressions of peace and amity, only provided for the adjustment of disputed or uncertain boundaries, and the restoration of territories and possessions obtained by the contending powers.

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Notwithstanding the pretensions of the Chinese, with regard to their antiquity as a nation, and to the great. antiquity of some of their books, there is scarcely a learned man, who does not believe the Pentateuch, or five first books of the Old Testament, to be the oldest writing in existence.

From Moses we have the account of the creation of the world, (about 4000 years before the birth of Jesus Christ,) the transgression of Adam and Eve, the death of Abel, the deluge [B. C.* 2348] the tower of Babel, the confusion of tongues, and consequent dispersion of the descendants of Noah, and other particulars, as recorded in sacred history.

These descendants scattered themselves throughout. the neighbouring countries. Some settled Egypt, others the different kingdoms of Greece. Nimrod laid the foundation of Babylon, the capital of the Chaldean Empire; and Ninus of Nineveh, the capital of the Assyrian. Abraham [B. C. 1931] was directed by the Almighty to proceed westward from the plains of Shinar, and settle on the eastern borders of the Mediterranean, (the Holy land afterwards called :) and here this territory was promised to him and his offspring for ever, after the lapse of several centuries of servitude in Egypt.

The selling of Joseph into Egypt, occasioned the removal of the Israelites to that country. The Israelites, [B. C. about 1500] left Egypt; and, after many years wandering, arrived at Jordan, the eastern boundary of the promised land. Here Moses and Aaron died. Jo

* These letters, B. C. mean-Before the birth of Christ. A. D. Anno Domini, in the year after his birth.

shua subdued the country; and the twelve tribes divided and settled it. Here they continued, and were governed, upwards of three hundred years, by their moral laws and those of the priesthood.

Saul was their first king: [B. C. about 1100.] David and Solomon succeeded. Soon after which, the tribes were divided. Those of Benjamin and Judah had their kings: the other ten tribes theirs. Nebuchadnezzar carried into captivity, [B. C. 600] the two tribes of Benjamin and Judah; the other ten tribes having long before, [B. C. 720] been conquered by Psalmanazer, king of Assyria, who overran their cities, spreading destruction every where, and carried his captives to Nineveh. These mingling with the Assyrians, were never more known or distinguished as the descendants of Jacob.

After remaining in captivity about 70 years, the two tribes returned to Jerusalem. Here they continued, often greatly distressed, and engaged in many wars; till they became subject to the Romans. Jesus Christ appearing, they denied his Messiahship, and put him to death. Titus, the Roman general, [A. D. 70] destroyed the city of Jerusalem, and levelled it with the dust.

From this period to the present moment, the Jews have been scattered amongst all nations of the globe, a distinct people, adhering to the laws of Moses, and the Jewish ritual; having never a government of their own, but subject to the caprices, cruelties, and deprivations, of every government where they reside, or have resided.


These names, by many ancient authors, have been often confounded. Syria has been more generally used for the countries between the Mediterranean and the Euphrates. Assyria, for that which lies between Media, Mesopotamia, Armenia and Babylon. The Assyrian was probably the oldest empire in the world. It is supposed to have flourished about 1200 years. Its founder was Ninus, or Belus; the queen Semiramis was one of its greatest rulers. Babylon, the capital,

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