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ed; the men, women, and children, making in the whole about fifteen hundred. These first planted themselves in Charlestown, but soon after crossed the river to the peninsula, Shawmut, (Boston) where the first General Court was this year held.

Articles of faith were agreed upon, to which every one was required to assent, and become a member of the church, before he could be entitled to vote at the elections, or could become eligible to the office of a magistrate or juryman. Thus could those, who, at such risk, under such hardships, and with such sacrifices, had fled from religious intolerance, exercise immediately an intolerance certainly not less severe nor less unjust; and deprive a fellow-citizen of his civil rights, because he could not conscientiously subscribe to every article of religion, believed by the majority.

But, while we lament this intolerance, we ought to remember that it was the rage of the times, not less in America than in Europe. Even Virginia, above thirty years after, made it penal for parents to refuse to baptize their children; and passed the most severe laws against Quakers, forbidding their residence among them, imprisoning them till they should abjure their tenets, or leave the country; severely punishing the first and second return, but inflicting death on the third.

In the year 1634, there were settlements above thirty miles distant from Boston in several directions; hence it became impracticable with convenience for all the freemen to attend the general court. The constitution was therefore altered to a representative democracy, twenty-four delegates representing the different towns. Four general courts were to be held every year. In that of the general election, all the freemen were to attend; but the freemen of every town might choose deputies to represent them at the other three general courts.

This form of legislation remained, with little alteration, during the continuance of the charter. Seven mer were chosen in Boston to regulate the division of the town lands. Their powers were afterwards enlarged, and hence arose, throughout New-England, the custom

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of choosing Selectmen, to regulate town affairs. market, and public inn were erected, and the first merchant's shop was opened.

1637. The troops of Massachusetts and Connecticut had several engagements with the Pequot Indians, and finally subdued them. This year was famous for a great theological disturbance made by Ann Hutchinson, a woman of much subtlety and considerable talents; who was accused of maintaining heresies, and supporting them by lectures frequently given to large auditories.

The consequence was a synod of the Ministers, elders, and messengers, of the churches; who, after three weeks deliberation, condemned eighty-two opinions as heretical; which had been disseminated in New-England: and, fearful of public disturbance by her adherents, fiftyeight persons were disarmed; and none were allowed to remain within the jurisdiction without the consent of a magistrate.

Some banishments of course took place; Mrs. Hutchinson herself was banished; and, with her husband and children, removed to Rhode-Island.

The legislature this year founded a public school at Newtown, afterwards called Cambridge. Two years after, Mr. John Harvard of Charlestown, a clergyman, left a legacy of 7791. 17s 2d. to the above mentioned school a gift, which, considering the value of money at the time, and the profession of the donor, a profession seldom imcumbered with the burdens of wealth, marks his great public spirit and his zeal for the diffusion of erudition.

Cambridge, in England, having been the place where many of the first settlers of New-England had received their education, the name of Newtown was altered to that of Cambridge, by the legislature, and the school was established under the appellation of Harvard College. In Cambridge was established (1639) the first printingoffice introduced in North America.

One hundred laws, by the appellation of "The Body of Liberties," were established (1640) for the government of the colony. Many of these were highly ne

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cessary and advantageous: but the admixture of theological control, and civil policy, must have been a source of constant perplexity.

No injunction was to be laid "on any church, church officer, or member, in point of doctrine, worship, or discipline, besides the institution of the Lord." When the law was defective, decision was to be "by the word of God."

After a slight sketch of the affairs of Virginia, to the present date, for the sake of greater perspicuity, those of the different colonies will be, for the most part, distinctly considered.

1622. Powhatan, who from the time of the marriage of his daughter with Mr. Rolfe, had been invariably friendly to the Virginia colony, having died four years before, was succeeded by Opechancanough. This chief was not less notorious for his audacity and subtlety, than for his jealousy and cruelty.

So perfect had been the peace, and so constant and unreserved the intercourse of the colonists and the Indians, that the latter had been supplied with muskets, and taught their use; while the former, considering themselves in perfect safety, had long neglected almost every species of precaution, unsuspectingly admitting the savages to their dwellings by night and by day, as innoxious or friendly visiters.

In this state of peace, and perfect confidence on the one part, on the morning of the 22d of March, the Indians came among the colonists, in their usual friendly manner; and, at the appointed moment, murdered three hundred and forty-seven men, women, and children.

Notice having been given the preceding night by a friendly Indian to one of the planters, who had time to inform those of Jamestown and its vicinity of their danger, the massacre was more limited than it otherwise would have been; it having been the design of the savages to destroy the whole settlement.

A famine succeeded, which greatly added to the distresses occasioned by the massacre. Of eighty plantations only eight remained. The want of provisions and

the loss of persons were, however, soon, in some degree supplied and alleviated by the arrival from England of twenty ships, with provisions, arms, and thirteen hundred souls. A general war with the savages was levied with success, and in a short time most of the neighbouring tribes were exterminated or slain.

1624. The The company, after having expended above one hundred thousand pounds, was dissolved; and the colony taken into the hands of the king; there being now about eighteen hundred persons left, of above nine thousand, besides those that were born in the colony.

The king issued a special commission, appointing a governor and twelve counsellors, for the superintendence of the colony and in whom all legislative and executive powers were vested. For several years, under this administration, the colony suffered much from burdensome, vexatious, and arbitrary regulations and procedures.

Sir John Harvey was appointed Governor in 1629, whose tyrannical, rapacious, and oppressive deportinent, so excited the resentment of the colonists, that they seized him, and sent him a prisoner to England.

King Charles, though at first equally disposed with his father to maintain a royal government in Virginia, having involved himself in great difficulty with his people and parliament, at home, seems to have relented in his severity towards his colonies.

Sir William Berkley succeeded Harvey, whose commission was revoked. The talents, probity, and suavity of manners, which he exemplified, were highly pleasing: nor less was the gratification to learn that he was directed to summon the burgesses to meet the governor and council in general assembly.

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CHAPTER II.

Maine, New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, Vermont, Connecticut and Rhode-Island.

Ineffectual attempt to settle Maine-Charter to Gorges-separation from Massachusetts proper-First settlement of New-HampshireSettlement of Exeter-Separation from Massachusetts-Union with, and subsequent separation from Massachusetts-Offensive and defensive union of the New-England States-Indian war--Defence of Number Four-Internal commotions-Dartmouth CollegeKing Philip's war-Alliance with the Narragansetts-General rising of the Indians throughout New-England-Defeat of the Narragansetts-Defeat of the Indians and death of Philip-Forfeiture of the charter of Massachusetts-Arrival of Andros-Andros seized→→ Charter resumed-New charter granted-Attack and surrender of Louisburg-Disappointment of a French fleet-Insurrection in Massachusetts-Its suppression-Settlement of Connecticut-Arrival of Winthrop War with the Pequots-Their defeat-New-Haven Colony-Forms of government-Charter of Charles the second -Secretion of the charter from Andros-Yale College-Territorial disputes-Roger Williams moves to Rhode-Island-settles Providence-Settlement of Newport--Religious toleration--Charter granted the Earl of Warwick-Charter of Charles the secondRhode Island deprived of its charter-Charter reassumed-Brown. University.

MAINE.

THE first attempt to make any settlement in the state of Maine was in 1607. Two ships, with a hundred men and provisions, were sent from England by Sir John Popham. They landed in August, at the mouth of the Kennebeck, or Sagadahock. A storehouse was built and fortified and in December the ships departed, leaving behind forty-five persons.

When visited, the next year, by ships bringing them supplies, they determined, with one consent, to return; considering the country "a cold, barren, mountainous

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