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cute and calumniate you"; or, further yet, how, in spite of the exercise of the selfish and combative faculties, in the struggle for existence, the tendency of which must have een to strengthen by use the organs of destruction, the same organs should gradually disappear, and that in man not one of them should be left. Let him explain, again, how out of mere animality, by "natural selection," out of the mere brute, in a "struggle for existence," beings should comemen to whom this would be a law: Be pure; for "he that looketh after a voman to lust after her hath already

committed adultery with her in his heart." There are such men-men to whom this is a law, and who obey it. Will a Vogt or a Büchner believe it? Will a Darwin account for it by "natural selection"?

Finally, let him explain how, if man has always been only growing out of some lower condition, he has yet learned, in a measure, to go be yond himself, to harbor an ideal which he has never reached, but towards which he ever strives, inasmuch as he endeavors to fulfil the command of the Son of God: "Be ye perfect, as my heavenly Father also is perfect."


THIS Supplication of the Suffering was that also of the Militant Church, which daily offered it as now with sighs and tears, and, by the light which this reflection casts on history, we can catch a glimpse for an instant at the immense multitude of the pacific men who in the middle ages were existing upon earth; for as many as were joined in spirit to the church, were united with her in this ardent, insatiable desire of peace. How do we know that the Catholic Church, which the holy Fathers call the house of peace, was so profoundly attached to peace? From a simpie review of her liturgy: for in the first place, her great daily sacrifice self was nothing else but the myslery of peace, the pledge of future and eternal, the diffusion of present eace to man. At this holy and tremendous celebration in which God hath given peace reconciling the

west with the highest in himself, the good of temporal peace was also formally invoked, at the Gloria, at the Trigitur, at the spreading of the hands

before the consecration, at the Libera nos at the salutation of the people, at the Agnus Dei, at the three prayers which follow it, and in the prayer for the king; for as the apostle assigns the reason for the latter, that we may lead a secure and peaceable life, so with that intention the holy church prays for all rulers, even for such as are transgressors of the divine law ;* which intention is formally expressed in her solemn litany, where she prays that kings and Christian princes may have peace and true concord, and all the people peace and unity. The innumerable priests, who celebrated throughout the earth, knew that the inestimable price of the world, and the great Victim for the salvation of men, could only be immolated in a spirit of peace, and with a contrite heart; and that, as Peter of Blois says, it is never lawful to offer it without that preparation.t-DIGBY, Mores Catholici.

* Hugonis Floriacensis de Regia Potestate lib. i. 4 ap. Baluze Miscell. ii. + Petr. Blesens, Epist. lxxxvi.



In this Canto, Dante introduces the souls of Nino Visconti, judge of Gallura in Sardinia; and of Conrad Malaspina, who predicts to the poet his banishment.

'TWAS now the hour that brings to men at sea,
Who in the morn have bid sweet friends farewell,
Fond thoughts and longing back with them to be;
And thrills the pilgrim with a tender spell

Of love, if haply, new upon his way,

He faintly hear a chime from some far bell,
That seems to mourn the dying of the day;
When I forbore my listening faculty

To mark one spirit uprisen amid the band

Who joined both palms and lifted them on high
(First having claimed attention with his hand)
And towards the Orient bent so fixed an eye
As 'twere he said, " My God! on thee alone

My longing rests." Then from his lips there came
Te lucis ante, so devout of tone,

So sweet, my mind was ravished by the same
The others next, full sweetly and devout,

Fixing their gaze on the supernal wheels,
Followed him chanting the whole Psalm throughout.

Now, reader, to the truth my verse conceals
Make sharp thy vision; subtle is the veil
So fine 'twere easily passed through unseen.
I saw that gentle army, meek and pale,
Silently gazing upward with a mien
As of expectancy, and from on high

Beheld two angels with two swords descend
Which flamed with fire, but, as I could descry,

They bare no points, being broken at the end.
Green robes, in hue more delicate than spring's
Tender new leaves, they trailed behind and fanned
With gentle beating of their verdant wings.

One, coming near, just over us took stand,
Down to th' opponent bank the other sped,

So that the spirits were between them grouped
Full well could I discern each flaxen head;

But in their faces mine eyes' virtue drooped,
As 'twere confounded by excess and dead.

"From Mary's bosom they have both come here,"
Sordello said "this valley to protect

Against the serpent that will soon appear:
Whence I, unknowing which way to expect
This object, turned me, almost froze with fear,
And to those trusty shoulders closely clung.
Again Sordello: "Go we down and see

These mighty shades, and let them hear our tongue:
Thy presence will to them right gracious be."
Only three steps I think brought me below
Where one I noticed solely eyeing me
As if who I might be he fain would know.

'Twas dusk, yet not so but the dusky air,
Between his eyes and mine, within the dell,
Showed what before it did not quite declare.
Towards me he moved, and I towards him as well:
Gentle Judge Nino, when I saw thee there

What joy was mine to find thee not in hell!

We left unsaid no form of fair salute:

Then he inquired: "How long since thou didst come
O'er the far waters to the mountain's foot ?"
"O but this morn," said I, "the realms of gloom
I passed in the first life I am, but fain

Would find the next by following on this track."
Like to men suddenly amazed, the twain,
He and Sordello, hearing this, drew back.
One looked at Virgil, one into the face
Of a companion sitting there, and cried,

"Up, Conrad! see what God hath of his grace Bestowed," then turning unto me replied:


"By that especial reverence, I beseech, Which thou ow'st him whose primal way is hid So that none sound it, if soe'er thou reach

The shore beyond the vasty waters, bid

My child Giovanna for my peace implore
There where the cry of innocents heaven heeds.
Her mother I am sure loves me no more
Since she put off her widow's paly weeds,
But in her misery fain would wear this day.
From her full readily may one be taught
How soon love's flame in woman dies away
If sight or touch full oft relume it not.

The chanticleer upon Gallura's shield
Had graced her sepulchre with fairer show
Than will that viper, which to battle-field
Marshals the men of Milan." With such glow
He uttered this as in his face revealed
The heart's just passion smouldering yet below.

Still that sole part of heaven I fondly eyed
Where the stars move, even as a wheel doth move
More slowly next the axle. Said my Guide:

“Son, what dost thou so gaze at there above ?" "Up there! at yon three torches," I replied, "Whose splendor makes this pole here all ablaze." And he to me: "The four clear stars that rose

This morn before thee have abased their rays,
And these have mounted in the place of those."
While thus he spake, Sordello to his side
Drew Virgil, and exclaimed: "Behold our Foe!"
And pointed to the thing which he descried.
And where that small vale's barrier sinks most low
A serpent suddenly was seen to glide,
Such as gave Eve, perchance, the fruit of woe.

Through flowers and herbage came that evil streak, To lick its back oft turning round its head,

As with his tongue a beast his fur doth sleek.

I was not looking, so must leave unsaid

When first they fluttered, but full well I saw
Both heavenly falcons had their plumage spread.
Soon as the serpent felt the withering flaw
Of those green wings, it vanished, and they sped
Up to their posts again with even flight.
The shade who had approached the judge when he
Accosted him, had never moved his sight
Through this encounter, looking fixed on me.


"So may that light," the spirit began to say,
"Which leads thee up, find in thine own free will
Sufficient wax to last thee all the way,

Even to th' enamelled summit of the Hill.
If thou true news of Val di Magra know'st,
Or of those parts, inform me of the same,
For I was mighty once upon that coast,

And Conrad Malaspina was my name. Not the old lord, but his descendant, I:

The love which once I to my kindred bore Is here refined." "O," thus I made reply,

"That realm of yours I never travelled o'er; But where throughout all Europe is the place. That knows it not? The honor Fame accords Your house illustrates not alone the race,

But makes the land renowned as are its lords; He knows that country who was never there:

Still the free purse they bear, and still bright swords: So mount my soul as this to thee I swear!

Custom and nature privilege them so,

That, if through guilt the world's guide lead astray,
They in the path of right straightforward go
Sole of all men, and scorn the evil way."

To these my words, "Now go," the spirit said,
For the sun shall not enter seven times more

That part of heaven where Aries o'er his bed
Stretches and spreads his forked feet all four,
Ere this thy courtesy's belief shall be
Nailed in the middle of thy head with nails

Of greater force than men's reports to thee
If, unimpeded, Judgment's course prevails.






THE following morning, Rasumowski sat with his guests at a sumptuous breakfast in his elegant summer-house, the roof of which rested upon beautfully ornamented pillars. Adolph yon Sempach appeared very sad; for he had again received evidences of Alexandra's indomitable pride and want of feeling. Beck remarked the sposition of his friend, and he thought with satisfaction of the deeply ficted mother in her lonely palace at Posen.

"Some years ago, the emperor emancipated the serfs-did he act rudently?" asked the high official

f Berlin.

"Whatever the czar does, is well done," answered the governor; "and the future czar again introduces The former system of servitude, that will be right. But you must o understand the abolition of servide in a literal sense. The serfs were freed only from servitude to the obility; the Russian nobility have


lost by it. But both peasant and noble will always remain slaves of the emperor. Consequently servitude still exists in Russia, the same kind that you desire to establish in the new German Empire. Ah! there comes the Roman Catholic pastor!" exclaimed the governor, his features assuming at once their accustomed look of ferocity. "Now, gentlemen, see how I shall deal with this hero of liberty, who preaches rebellion to the people!"

The pastor timidly approached the Russian dignitary, and allowed himself to be treated in a manner worthy of his priestly dignity.


But the priest had seen may thousands of his Catholic brethren put to death and transported to Siberia. He knew that, by a stroke of the pen, Rasumowski could doom him to the same fate; and to this must also be added the fact that in Poland Catholic clergyman are educated by professors appointed by the Russian government. These professors very naturally train and discipline the

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