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less definitely maintaining the same theory. Thus Dr. Pritchard, in his Physical History of Mankind," although confessing that researches into the history of the Etruscans have hitherto failed, admits that "all that can be inferred as tolerably well established respecting the Etruscan dialect is, that it belongs to the class of Indo-European languages." Mr. Bunbury also, in his article on Etruria in Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, is of opinion that so far as we are able to form a judgment in the present state of our knowledge, although distinct from the Pelasgic or Greek family of languages on the one hand, and from that of the Umbrians, Oscans, and Latins on the other, there are good reasons for believing the many ingredients of the Etruscan to belong to the same great family, or to the class of languages, commonly known as the Indo-Teutonic." Donaldson indeed in his "Varronianus" goes still further, and connects the Etruscans with the Low-German and Scandinavian race, after a comparison of their language with the Scandinavian or Icelandic as existing in the ninth century. (Etruscan Inscriptions, note pp. 7, 8, 9.)


In the present volume, however, the learned author has approached the subject from a different point of view, "having resorted to a more remote and comprehensive field of general Teutonic antiquity, and having also, as he himself believes, "arrived at a distinct ethnological inference, and, indeed, specific conclusion as to the origin" of the Etruscans.


"Dr. Donaldson's argument," he tells us, was, in fact, derived exclusively from comparison of language, leaving all other prior arguments from the patronymic Tyrrheni' or 'Thoringa,' from the correspondence of religious sympathies and usages, and from national character and institutions, untouched. The fact appeared to me that we had approached the subject from different points of view, from two opposite poles of the compass; he from the South, as a professed scholar, laying siege in due form to the walls and traditions of Tarquinü, with classical erudition and philological learning to which I could make no pretensions, and upon which he appeared to me in many instances to draw too readily and exclusively, when illustrations far more close and to the purpose-under one's very nose indeed-were to be found in the oldest Teutonic speech; but I myself from the North, as a roving Viking, ranging in my galley from shore to shore, seeking out our ancient kinsmen, and perhaps too rash and precipitate in the first instance in grasping by the hand, when I thought that I had recognized them, but with the advantage of starting from the cradle from which they also started in times of old, and of being preoccupied with the speech and traditions of our common Thoringa and Teuton forefathers rather more than with those of morepolished races, whose claims could not have a more learned or more accomplished advocate than Dr. Donaldson." (Note, p. 9.)

Again :

"Thus much I have been obliged to say in justice to myself with reference to the general theory I advocate [the author is alluding to instances in which Dr. Donaldson and others may have anticipated him]; but as regards the special application of this theory, I need fetter my lips by no such explanation. It has been allowed on all sides that it could not be asserted with absolute confidence that the Etruscan language was really and truly German till a sufficient number of the inscriptions had been analysed and found to render a clear and unmistakable response in that sense to the test applied

to them; and this test has now, I venture to say, for the first time, been effectually, however inadequately applied-but only as the last link in a long chain of previous induction." (Ibid.)

Some years ago the author, as he tells us (p. 3), had traced out and established "the links of descent in the Aryan race as represented by the three great families, which he styled, after the names of their respective eponymi in the ascending chain, the Thoringa, the Hruinga, and the Totinga. It was in the course of these investigations that he became convinced, "by the convergence of almost every description of historical evidence, that the Tyrrheni or Etruscans belonged to the Thoringa family, and must consequently have been closely akin to the Tervingi, Thuringi, Tyrki (or pre-Odinite Northmen), and other Teutonic tribes, although come off from the common stock, bearing the Thoringa name at an extremely remote period. The Rhæti or Rasenic branch of the great stock known to the ancients as Etruscan similarly belonged,--so I inferred, to the Hruinga family, and the general result I came to was, that the Tyrrheni and the Rhæti were the representatives, especially in the South, of the Tervingi and Grutimgi, latterly known as Visigoths and Ostrogoths, in the North and West of Europe."

It became therefore a most important question, whether the Etruscan language bore out this induction or contradicted it. In order to determine this, the author began with the single words "transmitted to us by the ancients as Etruscan, and of which they have given us the interpretations in Greek or Latin." The result, we are told, proved that they all had a corresponding sense, not only in the Aryan and Japhetan tongues generally, but also more particularly in ancient German. The next step was to test the names of the Etruscan Gods, and of the old cities of Etruria. The result again proving that in repeated instances the latter more particularly corresponded "with the natural features of the country, and with the symbolism of coins, and other indicia, as reflected in the same Teutonic idiom." The same process was also applied "to the words connected with those Roman institutions which the classical writers especially inform us were derived from Etruria, the result being still the same. Lest, however, such words might have incurred disguise and corruption in transmission and transcription, the author determined to examine in like manner "the inscriptions written in the unmistakable original dialect." These then were accordingly tested, with a no less gratifying result; and having been re-examined are, together with others similarly tested, now given to the public in the handsome volume before us.

It is only fair to the author to add, that he himself wishes it to be understood that he has no pretensions to speak with authority in linguistic matters. He has, he thinks, but discovered and opened the door into the treasury of the Etruscan language, and he leaves it to "the Great Masters of the Linguistic Science . . . to enter in and take possession, to reduce the language to its grammar, to elaborate its lexicon, and to determine its exact place on the genealogical tree of German speech, preparing the way for inquiries in which jurists, mythologists, and the leaders of kindred schools of study in Comparative Archæology will have to take part."

The inscriptions chosen for analysis are as follow:-1. Two very ancient

ones-the first of them discovered at Cære, and both of them generally looked upon as Pelasgian, but which the author believes to be likewise fundamentally Teutonic; also one or two more from Cære. 2. An archaic inscription, purely Etruscan, found near Tarquinii. 3. An inscription painted on an amphora, representing the parting of Alcestis and Admetus. 4. A series of inscriptions on votive offerings. 5. A selection from sepulchral inscriptions, some of them bilingual. 6. Two inscriptions relating to land tenure, found one of them at Volterra, the other at Perugia.*

To the reader unacquainted with philology some of the interpretations will, no doubt, appear arbitrary enough, nor will his scepticism be lessened when he discovers how very much the various interpretations offered for the same inscription differ from one another; as, for instance, in the following purely Etruscan inscriptions on the Alcestis and Admetus amphora, discovered at Vulci:



which reads, according to our author, "I pursue, or attack, the guarantor "[Alcestis]" through breach of engagement [on the part of Admetus, the principal] to appear at the fixed time of citation ;" but, according to Dr. Donaldson, "This earthen vessel in the ground is a votive offering of sorrow" (Varronian, p. 209); while, if Mr. Dennis is to be trusted, it reads, "Lo! she saves him from Acheron, and makes an offering of herself!" (Cities of Etruria, vol. i. p. xc. quoted by Earl of Crawford, &c., p. 40).† Still, we

* Etruscan being exclusively a monumental language, it labours under a great disadvantage as to specimens of grammatical structure, but this notwithstanding, sufficient proofs are given in the Appendix (pp. 311, 312), that it was similar to that of the Teutonic languages.

The inscription is thus analysed by the author. EKA: ERSKE: NAKEKA-NAK, a compound, answering (whether, as the first person singular of the present tense of a verb, or as a derivative noun, is uncertain) to nach hangen-to pursue, hang upon,-but with the elements of the compound in the reverse order to that we are familiar with in German. The root hang might be traced further back, e.g. to ag, as in ago. II. ERSKE formed from wer, "cautio, vades," in modern German gewähr, akin to warscipe (A.S) werschaft, and derived from waren, "cautionem adhibere."


THRSKE, although written after PHLER without break, is a distinct vocable, as shown by many other examples. Compare durch, "per, through.' TURKE, written also TRKE, constantly occurs in connection with some specified sin or penalty, and thus is not identical with turge, "fraus, dolus," still less with the Icelandic tregi, "dolor," as urged by Dr. Donaldson, who founds perhaps his strongest plea for the affinity of the Scandinavian and Etruscans on the argument that the words thrce and suthi, constantly occurring on Etruscan monuments of a funereal character, are translated at once by the Icelandic synonyms tregi and sut, both signifying "grief," or "sorrow."

PHLER a word constantly found, like THRKE TURKE in the inscriptions upon votive offerings in atonement for guilt. It corresponds with vlur, equivalent to verlust, "damnum." Here, perhaps, it means loss in the sense of forfeiture.

ACHRUM, to be read ASCHRUM, and divided as ASCH-RUM.—I. ASCH, corresponds with aischen, heischen, "expetere, citare," heischung,

believe that the author, although perhaps he may not as yet have succeeded in opening the door to the treasury of Etruscan inscriptions, has at least found the key. At any rate, if it be once admitted that the Etruscan belongs to the Indo-Teutonic family of languages (and certainly the amount of evidence brought forward in support of this theory is very great; nay, it is the only theory which is throughout consistently satisfactory), we have little hesitation in saying that the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres is right in connecting it rather with continental Germany than with Scandinavia.*

Nor does the wide difference to be met with in the interpretation of Etruscan inscriptions prove anything against this view. "For that an inability," says Dr. Donaldson, "to interpret ancient monuments may be consistent with a knowledge of the class of languages to which they belong is shown not merely by the known relationship between the language of the Egyptian hieroglyphics and the Coptic dialects more recently spoken in that country, but still more strikingly by the fact that, although we have no doubt as to any of the idioms spoken in ancient Britain, no one has been able as yet to give a certain interpretation of the Runic inscriptions on the pillar of Bewcastle, and on the font at Bridekirk, which are both in Cumberland, and which both belong to the same dialect of the Low German language." (Varronian, pp. 215, sqq.) Dr. Donaldson, indeed, as we have seen, connects the Etruscan with Scandinavia; but, as the Earl of Crawford points out (note, p. 204), such affinities as really exist may be accounted for by the original unity of the various branches of the Thoringa or Thuringian family.

aischung, aisch-e. 'citatio,' this last word being almost identical with the Etruscan AISCH. II. RUM, answers to an ancient Teutonic word, ram, rahm, implying terminus, scopus, gesetztes ziel, prescribed limit (up den ram, signifyingtempore definito"), but including, in understanding and practice, the intervening raum or space of time and opportunity allowed to the person summoned, and constituting the quernacht dwerchnacht, or zwerchracht of old Teutonic law.

The author at one time connected NAK: THRKP with the dwerchnacht and only gave up this view with great reluctance. By similar understanding and practice this ram, "terminus," seems to have acquired the additional sense of pledge, or plight to appear, confirmed by the hand ram, "manus." The above is, of course, only an abridgment of the author's analysis. In reading this note the reader must bear in mind that it is not proposed to derive the Etruscan words from the Teutonic or German language proper, but from roots and verbal formations which, it is inferred, have existed in the mother Teutonic tongue, from which both German and Etruscan are descended (p. 241). At the same time the author is of opinion that, "in very many instances German (in the broadest sense), even as spoken at present, preserves the primitive forms of Aryan and Japhetan speech, with a purity and precision which are entirely abraded and worn down, even in the Sanscrit," and that therefore, "to say the least, German is the contemporary and sister of Sanscrit, Zendic, Latin, and Greek."

*Thus, for example (inter alia), the word pfaud was used rather than wad for "pignus," and the god worshipped as Thor in Scandinavia, and as Donas and Thunaer by the ancient Saxons and Thuringians, appears as "Tunur" in the Etruscan inscription of S. Manno, near Perugia.—See p. 26.

In conclusion, we have to thank the author for the light he has thrown on a most interesting and important subject, hoping that what has now been done for the Etruscan tongue may also soon be done for the Basque, which has so long remained an outcast from every known family of languages.*

Lives of the Saints. By Rev. S. BARING-GOULD, M.A. March. London: John Hodges, 1872.

HE March volume of Mr. Baring-Gould's "Lives of the Saints" is now

intention of the author. In its own line, as a compendium of valuable information about the Saints, beautifully, simply, and reverentially written, this edition of the "Lives of the Saints" cannot fail to be productive of immense good; and we wish it the widest possible circulation. We are bound, however, to confess that in this work, as indeed in most of Mr. Baring Gould's writings, there seems to us to be a certain want of depth of earnestness and holy unction, the presence of which, far from interfering with its beauty and simplicity, would greatly enhance its value. This does not arise in any way from want of reverence, but, as we believe, from the tone of the author's own mind, and still more, perhaps, from his inability as an Anglican, to realise the fulness of Christ as manifested in the holiest of His members.

We have an example of this in the way in which he treats the life of S. Joseph, the foster-father of our Lord, and the spouse of our Blessed Lady. Of course we all know that very little is told us in the Scripture about S. Joseph, but that little is so pregnant with suggestion, especially when looked at in the light of the Church's devotion to Him, that no Catholic writer could, we think, have been content with the meagre page which Mr. Baring-Gould devotes to his life. The saints of God live not only in their lives, but they live again in the life of the Catholic Church, reigning with

*We are sorry to be obliged to add that the author, who has shown himself so painstaking in all his researches, should in one short sentence have given utterance to three inaccuracies-to call them by no stronger term. Thus, in the concluding chapter, he says (p. 228),-"The first occasion of our visit to Volterra was in very early days before Pio Nono had raised the cry of revolution in Europe, when he was still a simple monk in his cell at Imola. and when Gregory XVI. slumbered in S. Peter's chair at the Vatican." Now, to say that Pius IX. raised the cry of revolution in Europe is simply a calumny, betraying utter ignorance of contemporary history, while we need hardly remind our readers that the present Pontiff has never been a monk at all. As for Gregory XVI. slumbering in S. Peter's chair, the assertion is contradicted by the whole pontificate of that most vigilant and prudent Pope, who knew how to keep back with a firm hand the outburst of the revolution; and at the same time-as in the case of the Emperor of all the Russias to withstand the tyranny of the mightiest monarchs of the world. Anything but a "slumbering" Pontiff was Gregory XVI.

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