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acts of partiality, amply juftified the measures taken by the directory. When the United States thought proper to enforce the refpect due to their flag by the English, the French would alfo treat it with the fame degree of respect.

Thefe remonftrances of the French refident were answered by stating, to him, that according to the terms of the treaty of 1778, neutral property had been declared fecure in

ble. This was Mr. Monroe, who was received with great respect and cordiality. But when this gentleman was recalled, and Mr. Pinkney appointed his fucceffor, which was in November, 1796, the directory refused to admit him in that capacity, and fufpended, at the fame time, their own ambaffador in America, Mr. Adet, who was ordered to lay before that government the complaints of the republic against its proceedings, and the determina-American veffels: but that no fuch tion to iffue orders to the French fhips of war to act towards the trading veflels of neutral ftates in the fame manner that thofe ftates, permitted themfelves to be treated by the British navy.


In fupport of this determination, the directory alleged the feizure of French property, by the English, on board of American veffels in the very ports of the United States, and through the connivance of their government. Such had been the regard paid to America, by the convention, at the commencement of this war, that while it declared lawful prize all English property found in neutral vessels, the fhipping of the United States was excepted from this declaration. But the conduct of the English, in feizing the American fhips laden with provifions on French account, had compelled the convention, through mere neceffity, to refcind this act of indulgence and to use the right of retaliation, by feizing English property in American veffels.

It was farther ftated by Mr. Adet, that American failors were preffed into the fervice of the English, without reclamations being made, or even marks of difapprobation being manifefted on the part of the American government. Thefe and other

ftipulations were contained in the prefent treaty between England and America. But the propriety of this anfwer was pronounced inadmiffible by the French. It was abfurd, they faid, that any ftate fhould affent to the continuance of a treaty, when they found it was to be converted into an inftrument of the deepest injury to their interests. For the Americans to infift on the validity of fuch a treaty was an infult to the understanding of the French, to which it could not be expected they were either fo unwife, or fo pufillanimous, to fubmit; nor could the Americans reconcile to any principle of juftice, or of honour, the breach of that article in the treaty with France, by which they had bound themselves to guarantee the French colonies, in the Weft Indies, against the attempts of the English.

The reciprocal jealoufies excited by thefe various tranfactions were greatly heightened by the motives which were understood in France to have influenced the recall of Mr. Monroe from his embaffy, and the nomination of Mr. Pinkney in his ftead.

Thefe were the reputed partiality of the one to the French, and the contrary difpofition of the other. When the former took leave of the directory, they did not omit

this opportunity of declaring their fentiments on the fituation of affairs between France and America. They affured him, that whatever differences had arisen between the ruling powers of both countries, the French ftill retained their esteem for the people of the United Provinces, of whose warmth and good will to the republic of France they were thoroughly convinced, as well as of their difinclination to coincide with the measures adopted by their government. They were not lefs careful in teftifying their highest regard for his perfonal merit, and their warmest gratitude for the attachment he had unvariably difplayed to the cause of liberty and the profperity of France.

Such, however, was their refentment of the connection between the

English and the American govern. ments, that they determined to gratify it, by treating the American minifter with rudeness, if not with indignity. Not fatisfied with having denied him the affumption of that character, they would not fuffer him to remain at Paris as a private one. Herein they were, by many of their own people, feverely cenfured, as having, without neceffity, affronted an individual, come to them on a refpectable miffion, and widened thereby the breach between them and the ftate which he reprefented. Prudence, it was faid, ought to have enjoined a contrary behaviour. They fhould have fought to have kept the door of reconcili ation open, instead of striving to fhut it in this arrogant and contemptuous manner.



The Haughtiness of the Directory towards different Nations.-Particularly towards the Dutch, whom they confider, not as Confederates, but a conquered People.-Moderation of the Republic and prepondering Party in the United Provinces.-Batavian Convention.-Its_Proceedings.-Affairs of Geneva. -Meeting of the National Inftitute of France.Confidered as an auspicious Omen of the Return of Peace and Reign of the Arts.-And Liberty of Thinking and Publishing on all Subjects.-The Alliance between the Church and Monarchy of France, in the End, ruinous to both.-The new, or conftitutional, Clergy avow their Affent to the Separation of the Church from the State. Yet venture to condemn fome Things fetiled, or approved, by the republican Government.—But which they confidered as adverse to the Dignity and Interefts of the ecclefiaftical Order.-The Settlement of ecclefiafiical Affairs confidered by the Generality of the French as a Matter of great Importance.

HE irritable temper of the di

other governments befide the American. The court of Stockholm, which had, fince the death of the late king Guftavus, explicitly re nounced his projects against the French republic, and manifefted favourable difpofitions to it, had lately undergone an evident alteration. Some attributed this to the intrigues of Ruffia; others to the refentment of the Swedish government at the duplicity of the French, who had paid the fubfidy they owed to Sweden, in drafts upon the Dutch republic, which they were confcious would not be honoured. Another motive of diffatisfaction to the directory was, the recall of baron Stäel, the Swedish ambassador, a friend to the republic, and the replacing him. by Mr. Renhaufen, a gentleman noted for his attachment to the po8

litics of Ruffia. The court of Swe

gave directory counterfand,

that were he to be refufed admiffion, the French envoy at Stockholm, would be treated precifely in the fame manner. But the directory ordered him, nevertheless, to quit Paris; not, however, without expreffing the highest refpect for the Swedish nation, the good-will of which it ftill fought to retain, notwithstanding this variance with its government. The French envoy at that court was, at the fame time, directed to leave it; his refidence there being no longer confiftent with the honour of France, to the intereft of which that court was become manifeftly inimical, by its fubferviency to Ruffia, the declared enemy to the French republic.

The king of Sardinia's ambaflador had, in like manner, experinced the difpleafure of the directory, for


expreffing his regret at the precipitation with which his mafter had concluded the treaty of peace with France; the terms of which, he faid, would have been much lefs fevére, had he waited for the more favourable opportunities that followed it. For having uttered words of that import, he was ordered to quit the territory of the republic. The Tufcan envoy was difmiffed in the fame manner, on account of the particular zeal he had teftified in behalf of Lewis XVI.'s daughter, when he was permitted to leave France.

The court of Rome, when compelled by the victories of Buonaparte to folicit a fufpenfion of arms, had fent commiffioners to Paris, to negociate a peace: but, in hope that the numerous reinforcements, which were coming from Germany to the Imperial army, would enable it to recover its loffes, and expel the French from Italy, they ftudioufly protracted the negociation, on pretence that they were not furnished with fufficient powers to conclude a definitive treaty. It was not till the fucceffes of the French had put an end to thefe hopes, that they appeared defirous, as well as en powered, to come to a conclufion. But the directory, for anfwer, fignified their immediate difmiffion.

Notwithstanding the refolute and decifive conduct adopted by the directory, they found it neceffary to abate of their peremptorinefs with the Dutch; who, though ftrongly determined to remain united in intereft with France, were not the lefs refolved to retain their national independence. The party that favour ed and had called in the French, had done it folely with the view of fecuring their affiftance for the fup

preffion of the ftadtholdership, in which they had been formally promifed the concurrence of the French republic. They were, for this motive, fo zealous for the fuccefs of its arms, that, during the campaign of 1794, they had projected an infurrection in the principal towns of the Seven United Provinces, while the republican armies fhould advance, with all speed, to their fupport. Having communicated their defigns to the French government, they doubted not of its readiness to fe cond them, and prepared accordingly to execute the plans which they had formed in virtue of that expectation. But the uninterrupted career of victory, that had given fo decided a fuperiority to the French over all their enemies, had also elated them in fuch a manner, that, looking upon the co-operation of their party, in Holland, as no longer of that importance which it had hitherto appeared to be, they now received its applications with a coldness, which plainly indicated that they confidered the Dutch as a people that must submit to their own terms, and whom they now propofed to treat rather as being fubdued by the arms of the French, than as confederated in the fame caufe.

Such were the difpofitions of the French towards the Dutch, when they enterred the United Provinces. The arbitrary manner, in which they impofed a multiplicity of heavy contributions upon the Dutch, was highly exafperating to the nation: but they were too prudent to exafperate men, who were determined. to act as conquerors, and whom it was impoffible to refift. They fubmitted, therefore, with that phlegm atic patience, which characterizes

them in difficulties, and ufually enables them to furmount the greatest, by giving way to the ftorm while it lafts, and referving themselves for thofe aufpicious opportunities of retrieving their affairs, that fo feldom fail the vigilant and undefponding.

In the mean time, the republican party, in Holland, refolved to conduct itself with fo much temper to the adherents of that party, which it had oppofed with fo much firmnefs and perfeverance, that they should have no cause to complain of its having made an improper ufe of the power it had newly acquired. The effects of this moderation were highly beneficial to both parties. It foftened the grief of those who had been deprived of the government of their country, and induced them to be lefs hoftile to thofe who had taken their places: and it procured for thefe a readiness in the generality of people to confider them as actuated by patriotic motives, and in no wife by private animofity towards their antagonists.

This conduct was the more remarkable, that the inhabitants of the provinces, though a large majority, was defirous of a change of government, differed materially in their opinions concerning that which was to fucceed it. The party favouring the stadtholder was the leaft confiderable. It confifted of the titled, or noble families, ftill remaining in the United Provinces, and chiefly depended upon the inferior claffes, and the great number of foreigners, for the moft part Germans, in the Dutch fervice. The mercantile and middle claffes, and generally the people of opulence and property, were in clined to a republican fyftem: but herein they differed among them felves as to the plan to be adopted. VOL. XXXVIII.

Several preferred the antecedent one, that had fubfifted from the demife of William III. king of Great Britain and ftadtholder, with fuch alteration as might fecure it effectually from a re-establishment of that office, and render it more democratical: others recommended an immediate adoption of the precedents, which the French had fixed on as the most popular. These different parties contended with great warmth for the fuperior excellence of their various plans. But the neceffity of fettling fome form of government, brought them, at laft, after long and violent difpute, to the determination of calling a national convention. The provinces of Zealand and Frizeland, the two moft confiderable in the Dutch republic, next to that of Holland, made a long and obftinate oppofition to this propofal. But they were, at length, prevailed upon to concur with the others on its expediency.

The year 1795 was confumed in altercations of this nature. But as foon as the national convention met, which was on the first of March, 1796, all parties agreed on a refolution to declare war against Great Britain, which they confidered as having chiefly occafioned the many calamities that had befallen the United Provinces for a course of years. Through its influence over the ftadtholder, the ftrength of the ftate had been perfidiously withheld from acting in defence of the trade and fhipping of the republic, and its interefts wholly facrificed to thofe of England. During the whole duration of the American war, this had been done in despite and contempt of continual remonftrances and folicitations from the most refpectable citizens in the common[N]


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