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he latter the learned ferjeant enered into a long and accurate difcuffion, in a very elaborate, feeling, and interefting manner. He began by obferving, that the jury were called upon to difcharge a moft important, facred, and awful duty. They were entrusted, on the one hand, with the vindication ofthe laws of their country, and the fafety of the community, of which they themselves formed a part; while the fortune, the character, and the life of a fellow-fubject, were committed to their deliberation on the other. The deareft interefts of the unfortunate man at the bar were in their hands! He must call him unfortunate, for whether guilty or innocent of the crime with which he was charged, no man in his fituation, and having fubmitted to the sufferings to which he had been fubject, let the innocence of his heart be as pure as it might, could be called fortunate. The verdict of the jury might put his life out of danger, and reftore to him that liberty to which he had long been a ftranger; but no verdict of their's could place him in the fituation he was in on the day before he was apprehended.

After endeavouring to explain the motives which might probably actuate the prifoner, as arifing from vanity or affectation of confequence, Mr. ferjeant Adair proceeded to ftate what he confidered as the outline of the facts of the cafe, in the following clofe and ingenious way-“ A person of the name of Jackfon came over from France by the way of Hull, in the character of an American merchant, with letters of recommendation from Mr. J. H. Stone, to Mr. W. Stone, the prifoner. Mr, Stone, VOL. XXXVIII.

during his refidence in London, fhewed him fome civilities, and advanced him money on his brother's account.

Soon after he went over to Ireland, where he was tried and convicted of high treason, and died ; and during his refidence in Ireland, Mr. Stone furnished him with fome ftatements of the internal fituation of this kingdom. The queftion for the decifion of the jury then was, whether, under thefe facts, they were perfuaded from what Stone knew of Jackfon, that he gave Jackfon these statements as information for the ene my, with the criminal intention ftated in the indi&ment; or for the purpofe of averting an impending calamity from his country? The facts were clear as funfhine, and this was the only queftion that arofe upon them. He called upon them, therefore, to confider, whether there was fufficient evidence of an overt act of treason, and if there was, it was not the encouraging of an invafion, but the preven tion of that event, from which fo much evil would have been confequent. Jackson was convicted for high treafon, in perfuading the French to invade this country; whereas the prifoner was accufed of high treafon, and the overt act with which he was charged was preventing an invafion. But if the mo tive for caufing an invafion was criminal, how could the motive for preventing an invafion be criminal. alfo?

The learned ferjeant then went at length into the evidence produced; and concluded by calling feveral witneffes to prove the pub licity with which Mr. Stone communicated

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municated the correfpondence of his brother, not only to friends, but to ftrangers; -a circumftance totally incompatible with that guilt with which he was charged. He alfo called very refpectable evidence, that fo far from his harbouring treafon to the country, he, on the reverfe, was loyal to his king, and a firm friend to the conftitution. Several perfons were then called, all of whom gave evidence to the prifoner's good character, and fome to the circumfiance of the publicity used relative to his correfpondence with his brother.

Mr. Erfkine then addreffed the jury confiderably at length on the whole of the cafe; as did alfo the folicitor-general in reply, on behalf of the crown; but our limits will not allow us to lay them before our readers.

Lord Kenyon fummed up the evidence. He was for tempering juftice with mercy; but this maxim could not fan&tion the court in fuffering a criminal to escape, if it were proved that he had groffly offended the law. He refted wholly on the fecond count, which ftated an adhering to the enemies of the crown. He quoted the opinion of the late lord Mansfield, that letters fent to a power at war, inftructing them how to fhape their efforts,came under this branch of the ftatutes, and are an overt act of high treafon. His lordfhip read to the jury what he called the two emphatically important papers; the letters of Mr. Smith and Mr. Vaughan. There was no criminality, he admitted, in either of those letters; the only guilt was in tranfmitting them to the enemy. His lordship went over the whole with remarks, and concluded a ftrong and warm charge, by put

ting thofe papers into the hands of the jury, leaving it to them to judge of the intention of the prifoner from the overt acts.

Mr. juftice Lawrence remarked, it was for the confideration of the jury, whether the information fent through Jackfon to France, had for its object a defign of ferving the French, or averting an invasion.

About eight o'clock the jury took fome refreshment, and then retired to confider of their verdict.

The judges, except Mr. juftice Afhhurft, who retired, took fome refreshment on the bench, where they remained till eleven o'clock; when the jury returned, bringing in the prisoner-NOT GUILTY.


The words were fcarcely pronounced, when an inftantaneous and unanimous fhout arose in the court, which was loudly joined by a numerous crowd in the hall. gentleman, named Richard Thomfon, was obferved to have joined in the thout, and was immediately ordered by his lordship into the cuftody of Mr. Kirby. Mr. Thomfon apologifed to the court, by faying, that his feelings on the joyful occafion were such, that if he had not given utterance to the joy which arose within his breaft, he fhould have died on the fpot,

Lord Kenyon replied, that it was his duty to fupprefs the emotions of fuch tumultuous joy, which drew contempt on the dignity of the court. His lordship ordered that he should pay a fine of 201. for his mifconduct, and remain in cuftody till payment.

Mr. Thomfon tendered his check for the fum, but this was refused, and he was taken into cuftody.

The crowd without caught the fpirit of those within; and the hall, as the judges retired, was filled with acclamations of joy. A de

A detainer was lodged against Mr. Stone for a confiderable debt, immediately after his acquittal. He was, however, liberated from his confinement in Newgate on Saturday the 13th of February following.

Petition of Sir Francis Blake to the Houfe of Commons, prefented by Mr. Grey, 8th February, 1796.

To the Honourable the Commons of Great Britain in Parliament affembled.

fo concerned, can always contrive to relieve themfelves by fhifting the weight, which in that cafe muft ultimately and principally fall upon the proprietors of land, who have no fuch means of fhifting the weight.

That uniformly as the trade of the nation has more or lefs flourished, the territorial rental has in like manner, and in fome fuch proportion been obferved to advance.

That in the year fixteen hundred, the territorial rental did not exceed fix millions per annum. That from the year fixteen hun

The humble Petition of the fub- dred and eighty-eight, under all the

fcribing party,


That your petitioner may be permitted by this honourable houfe to ketch, for their confideration, the outline of an arrangement, which takes for its aim the political falvation of this country, the happinefs of the community at large, and of every individual, and which proposes to work its effect by means, which are apparently, both eafy, certain, safe, and honourable. And your petitioner further prayeth, that it may be permitted him to ftate to this honourable house, for the purpose of their more ready determination, the reafons which have influenced him to fuppofe the arrangement in question to be fraught with the benefits fuggefted by him-which are briefly as


That from fources of information the beft within his reach, it has appeared to the complete fatisfaction of your petitioner-That trade is not an object, which by any poffible human contrivance can be made amenable to the payment of any tax, that can affect the partics concerned in its management, inafmuch as the parties

difficulties and diftreffes of the intervening space, the trade of the. country increased, and the rental advanced from fix to fourteen millions per annum.

Computing therefore, by the vaft increase of trade, from the period last named to the present time, comprifing a series of years for the most part favourable, the final refult muft be, that the prefent rental cannot reasonably be fuppofed to fall fhort of fifty millions per annum; which led of courfe to the following conclufions:

That the way to advance the land is to give every poffible encourage. ment to trade.

That the way to deprefs the land is to burden trade.

That to burden trade is, in effect, to burden land befides depreffing it.

Taking, therefore, the prefent territorial rental at fifty millions per annum; the funded rental at ten millions; the two together at fixty millions per annum; the prefent payments to government at fifteen millions per annum; the preffore of thofe payments on the rental named, as authorised by general acknowledgment, at fifteen fhillings in the pound, your peti

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tioner proceded to reafon upon thofe data as follows:

If it be true that the territorial and funded rental is fixty millions per annum,

Then is it true, alfo, that five fillings in the pound, on fuch a rental, will raife a revenue of fifteen millions.

If it be true that we now pay ten fhillings in the pound to raife a revenue of fifteen millions.

Then is it true alfo, that we pay five fhillings in the pound more than we have any occafion' to pay.

If it be true that the trading part of the nation can always contrive to create for themfelves an exemption from ftate burdens,

Then it is true alfo, that the landed and funded proprietors are, and have all along, to their irreparable lofs, been the principal, if not the fole paymafters of all impofts, and confequently that little or no injury will be done to that body of men, but that great and lafting advantage will accrue to them, and to their pofterity, by changing the mode, as here propofed, of collecting the revenue.

Your petitioner, therefore, moft humbly prays, that he may be permitted and authorised to charge his real estates with the payment of thirty thousand pounds, or with the payment of fuch other fum, be the fame more or lefs, as may be afcertained by this honourable boufe, to be his proportionate fhare of the public debt, fuppofing the faid public debt to be parcelled out for payment among the feveral proprietors of lands, houfes, mines, waters, tythes, rents, in any way arifing therefrom, monies fo fecured, and public funds.

And your petitioner further prays, that his faid eftates may be made fubject to the payment of

intereft on the fum to be fa charged as above, at the rate of four pounds per cent. or any other rate of intereft, be the fame more or lefs, which

may appear to this honourable houfe to be his proportionate fhare of the annual charge of the faid public debt, fuppofing the fame to be transferred as aforefaid.

And your petitioner further prays, that he may be permitted and authorifed to pay in future his proportionate fhare of the civil li and peace eftablishment, by an annual pound rate, the quantum of which pound rate to be ascertained by this honourable houfe, in like manner as before has been mentioned..

And your petitioner further prays, that as often as the exigencies of government may provide a further aid, he may be permitted and authorifed to pay his proportionate fhare of the fame, by fuch an additional pound rate as may be afcertained by this honourable houfe to be fufficient to accumulate the fum which would fall to his lot of payment, fuppofing the whole annual fupply to be raised within the year, and parcelled out for payment among the feveral proprietors aforefaid.

And your petitioner further prays, that he may be permitted and authorised to make fuch temporary, and fuch permanent payments, as have been severally named and affented to on his part, by half yearly inftalments, and that the fame may be declared to be accepted in full fatisfaction of his proportionate fhare of all taxes, cuftoms, duties and parliamentary impofts, laid already, or which may be laid on the subjects of this country, or their concerns. And your petitioner fhall ever pray.



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His Majefty's most gracious Speech to both Houses of Parliament, 19th May, 1796.


My Lords, and Gentlemen, HE public bufinefs being now concluded, I think it proper to clofe this feflion,and at the fame time to acquaint you with my intention of giving immediate directions for calling a new parliament.

The objects which have engaged your attention during the prefent feflion, have been of peculiar importance; and the measures which you have adopted, have manifested your continued regard to the fafety and welfare of the people.

The happieft effects have been experienced from the provisions which you have made for reprefing fedition and civil tumult, and for reftraining the progrefs of principles fubverfive of all eftablished. government.

The difficulties arifing to my fubjects from the high price of corn, have formed a principal object of your deliberation; and your affiduity in investigating that fubject, has strongly proved your anx ious defire to omit nothing which could tend to the relief of my people, in a matter of fuch general concern. I have the greatest fatisfaction in obferving that the preffure of those difficulties is in a great degree removed.

Gentlemen of the Houfe of

I must in a more particular man

ner return you my thanks for the liberal fupplies which you have granted to meet the exigencies of the war. While I regret the extent of thofe demands which the prefent circumstances neceffarily occafion, it is a great confolation to me to obferve the increafing refources by which the country is enabled to fupport them. Thefe refources are particularly manifested in the ftate of the different branches of the revenue, in the continued and progreffive state of our navigation and commerce, in the fteps which have been taken for maintaining and improving the public credit, and in the additional provifion which has been made for the reduction of the national debt.

My Lords and Gentlemen,

I fhall ever reflect with heartfelt fatisfaction on the uniform witdom, temper, and firmness which have appeared in all your proceedings fince I first met you in this place. Called to deliberate on the public affairs of your country in a period of foreign and domeftic tranquillity, you had the happiness of contributing to raise this kingdom to a state of unexampled profperity. You were fuddenly compelled to relinquith the full advantages of this fituation, in order to relift the unprovoked aggreffion of an enemy whole hoftility was directed against all civil fociety, but more particularly against the I 3


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