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country. They will completely redress the political balance by counteracting the preponderance of the Boer vote, and they will introduce enlightenment, reform and fresh energy into every department of the State and every branch of social life. In time they may even civilize the Boers to some extent. Arrangements ought to be made to enable them to bring out to South Africa any members of their families who might be willing to join them; and even apart from this, committees of ladies should be formed in England and elsewhere, in conjunction with religious bodies of various denominations, for the purpose of sending out, under safe escort and to the care of reliable guardians, as many well-educated young ladies of British birth as might care to go out, after a preliminary training in nursing the sick, teaching, cooking, sewing or such other arts of domestic economy as might be found necessary. All arrangements for their safety and comfort could be made by local committees, and in the event of their getting married others might doubtless be found to take their places from time to time. In this way a sure foundation might be laid for a race of colonists in South Africa second to none in the world. The number of girls who remain unmarried and without sufficient objects in life in England is appalling, and I would beg to commend this suggestion to the serious consideration of philanthropic ladies who take a sincere interest in the welfare and happiness of their sex, and at the same time are willing to promote emigration in its best form.

I may here briefly recapitulate the principal points in such a settlement as I would recommend on the conclusion of hostilities, bearing in mind the duty of dealing justly both by the loyal Colonists of the Cape Colony and Natal and also by the Boers, the necessity of rendering impossible any repetition of attempts at a Boer conquest of South Africa with foreign aid, and the desirability of conciliating our Dutch fellow-subjects by all fair means and gradually reconciling them to their lot as British citizens.

With regard to territorial limits, I am of opinion that the best plan would be to establish in Southeastern Africa one great colony, to be called Natal, comprising Swaziland, the Transvaal and the Orange territory. If the necessary understanding could be arrived at with the Cape Colony, Griqualand East and Pondoland should be added to Natal, the St. John's or Umzimvubu River to be the boundary.

No effort should in my opinion be made to force on a federation of the South African Colonies. Federation, if it comes, must be spontaneous; but, as regards the rich southeastern portion of South Africa, Her Majesty's Government will have, when the war is over, such an opportunity as seldom occurs in the history of any Empire or any people. They will have tabula rasa, carte blanche, a sort of virgin page on which to write what they will. It is indeed a golden opportunity, and on the use made of it may depend not only the destiny of South Africa, but the fate of the British Empire.

The advantages of uniting the present colony of Natal and the Transvaal and Orange territory in one great colony would, I think, be very great. It would have an excellent seaboard. It would be a fair political and commercial counterpoise to the Cape Colony. An appeal court for all South Africa below the Zambesi might at once be established at Cape Town, with rights of ultimate appeal to the Privy Council. The Cape University system might be extended over all South Africa. The postal and telegraph systems would be uniform and could be worked from one centre. Due provision would be made, of course, for extradition and for the reciprocal enforcement of legal process. Union as between the great Eastern and Western Colonies for defensive purposes could be easily arranged. The laws of Natal and. of the two extinct Republics would have to be examined and compared, and a law commission should be appointed to draft a series of consolidating enactments applicable to the entire territory. These enactments, of course, would have to be submitted to the present Natal Legislature, whose consent would be a condition precedent to any such arrangement; but, as regards the conquered territories, legislation should be by proclamation, pending the establishment of a limited form of representative government. Full parliamentary institutions with responsible government could not be safely introduced until all danger of disturbances shall have been finally removed. The task of simplifying, assimilating and consolidating the laws would not be so difficult in reality as would seem likely at first sight. The Roman-Dutch Law is the common law of all South Africa. Special laws where necessary could be expressly limited to certain localities. Mercantile laws could be assimilated as far as possible to those of England, as has been done in the Cape Colony. Mining laws could be so drawn as to

be applicable to the whole territory. The criminal law would in the main be similar to that of the Cape Colony, which is a not infelicitous mixture of Roman-Dutch and English law. English would be the official language, but all laws and proclamations would have to be published in Dutch as well as English, and due provision would have to be made for interpretation in all courts of justice. The language question would present no insuperable difficulties, as most officials in South Africa understand both languages; and in any sound educational system to be hereafter introduced into the Transvaal and Orange districts, the teaching of English should be made a condition sine quâ non in all cases in which a Government grant in aid might be applied for.

As regards the choice of a new capital, I should be inclined to suggest the formation of a new city in a high and healthy situation as near the western side of the Drakensberg as possible; but if that be thought too great an undertaking the best existing position would, on the whole, be Johannesburg.

Municipalities for large towns and village management boards for small ones should be established as soon as possible.

Monopolies should be abolished without compensation. Free trade should be adopted. There are no manufactures or industries worth protecting. All customs dues for revenue purposes would be levied at the coast, as at present in the Cape Colony. Inland custom houses would not be required. An excise should be imposed and rigorously enforced. Equal rights should be secured to all white men; equal justice for all men, white or black.

The supply of liquor to natives should be absolutely prohibited. As regards land, the South African system of registration of title and government survey is perfect. Land commissions could be appointed, of course, wherever necessary.

There is a wide difference between the late actual administration. of government in the Orange Free State and that in the Transvaal. In the Orange territory, the late government may be described as honest, fair and even liberal. It would therefore be desirable to make as few changes as possible in that part of the country; the oath of allegiance being required, of course, from all officials. A firm, just and conciliatory policy, steadily pursued with due regard and consideration for the natural feelings and sentiments of the respectable inhabitants of the Orange dis

tricts, and the prospect of representative institutions, and, ultimately, of responsible government will do much to reconcile all but the hopelessly irreconcilable to a change which, after all, will prove to them a blessing in disguise. Leniency, however, must not be carried too far at first. No crimes or offenses should be condoned, and the rights of all claimants for compensation should be duly considered and strictly enforced. In a conquered territory there is no danger that British officers will show excessive severity. It is quite the other way. Much harm may be, and often is, done by mistaken kindness. Justice should in all cases come before generosity.

In the Transvaal many drastic changes will be necessary which it is needless for me to specify in detail. The Uitlanders' legitimate grievances will need prompt and complete redress, and the whole Augean stable of corruption will have to be swept out with an unsparing hand. Indeed, the reforms needed may be summarized briefly as the substitution in the government of the country of honesty for dishonesty, of purity for corruption, of justice for injustice, and of freedom for slavery.

As regards that weightiest of questions, the financial settlement-the crucial test of all sound government-it may be necessary for Great Britain to provide cash in the first instance; but, as already remarked, the burden must be made to fall in due course on the two extinct republics, and especially on the Transvaal. That this will heavily tax the resources of the Transvaal is certain. The gold-mining industry in particular will have to a great extent to meet the cost of striking off its shackles, but it is well able to support it. English shareholders will probably face their liabilities under the circumstances with resignation. The foreign shareholders who are so largely interested in Transvaal gold mines will grumble; but they can hardly expect much sympathy from us. The almost universal Anglophobia on the European Continent throughout the present war has occasioned equal surprise and regret in England. Our foreign foes rejoice at our misfortunes, minimize our successes and exhaust their extensive vocabularies of vituperation in writing and speaking about us. Their malice is only surpassed by their ignorance of the real merits of the case they so glibly discuss. If their support of the Boers should culminate in pecuniary loss to themselves, they will have no right to blame us for the result.

England is in the proud position of needing no foreign alliance. She fears no foe, no combination of foes. Her own sons can protect her. Her fixed policy is to avoid the entanglements of any alliance with foreign States. Englishmen well know who are their real enemies and what their relative strength is. Not even with the United States of America will Great Britain ever seek alliance; but the British value the sympathy and appreciation of their kinsmen across the Atlantic far more than the good opinion of all other nations put together. The moral support of American citizens of British descent is most highly esteemed in England by all classes. The present deplorable struggle in South Africa, in which so many of England's best and bravest have already perished, is the war of freedom, justice and equality before the law, against the powers of darkness, and we feel sure that the verdict of enlightened American citizens will be as just and impartial as the future judgment of history. SIDNEY SHIPPARD.

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