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to ten thousand men, some three thousand militia from the State of New York, and two thousand from the south; so that the whole force under Gen. Washington, at the commencement of operations on Long Island, on the 22d of August, was more than 25,000 men. This was the largest body of American troops ever collected at one point during the revolution; and the British force was proportionately large. The fourteen regiments of militia sent to New York city, together with the Connecticut quota in the regular army, constituted at least one-third of Gen. Washington's army in the neighborhood of New York, at the commencement of operations on Long Island. Shortly after, nine out of the eleven regiments left in Connecticut, were sent to the relief of Suffolk county, L. I., so that, as Connecticut had at that period but twenty-five regiments, all of them but two, were summoned to the aid of New York at one time, and that in the most busy season of the year. After the defeat on Long Island, the evacuation of New York, and the retreat of Washington across the Hudson, the Connecticut militia having disbanded, and gone home, for the defence of the State, there was only a force of 4,000 men left under Gen. Lee, at White Plains, which force was speedily withdrawn, although composed principally of Connecticut men, so that the State was left to rely on its own resources, and in a measure defenceless. This was one of the most gloomy periods of the war of independence. The situation of Connecticut was critical in the extreme. Two British armies occupied strong positions on her right and left; Long Island Sound was covered with a large British fleet; and the British force in New York and Newport, was scarcely inferior in number to the whole militia of the State.

The militia had been harassed by repeated calls of duty, and had suffered greatly in the defence of New York, by privation and sickness,-so that had the British invaded Connecticut at this time, the militia would have been ill-qualified to have resisted them with success. In addition to other evils, the harvest of the past season, had been scanty, and gathered with great difficulty from the want of laborers; the women became familiar with the use of the plough, hoe, axe, and sickle; and but a small supply of seed had been put into the ground for the coming season. But, notwithstanding these numerous and appalling difficulties, neither Athens, when she was beset by the legions of Xerxes, nor Rome,

when she had lost the battle of Cannæ,exhibited a more indomitable spirit of firmness than the people and government of Connecticut at the close of the autumn of 1776. The high character for bravery which the people of Connecticut had acquired in the various contests in the beginning of the revolution-the great unanimity which prevailed among them-their patriotic devotion to the cause of independence-together with the unconquerable spirit of resistance which had so signally displayed itself in the heroic bravery of Knowlton, and the ever-memorable martyrdom of the gallant Hale-all had their influence to protect the people of Connecticut from the incursions of the enemy, and preserve them from the danger then so apparently formidable and threatening.

In going over the events of the campaign of 1776, which relate to Connecticut, it may be well, in this place, to give a brief account of one, whose lamentable fate ought to be preserved in the memory of every American.* NATHAN HALE was a son of Connecticut, born in South Coventry, on the 6th of June, 1755.

* The following is a genuine specimen of tory benevolence, and may be depended upon as real matter of fact.

NEWBURYPORT, February 13, 1777. Samuel Hale, late of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after his elopement from thence, visited an uncle in Connecticut, where he was hospitably entertained. But as his uncle was a Whig, and had a son, a young gentleman of a liberal education and most amiable disposition, who strongly felt for his bleeding country, and being very active in the military way, was urged and prevailed on to take a commission in the continental army; consequently Samuel was obliged to conduct with caution, and counterfeit as well as he could, a whigish phiz while he tarried, which however, was but for a short time, before he made his escape to Gen. Howe, in New York.

Some time after this, Capt. Hale, at the request of the General, (Washington) went into New York in disguise, and having nearly accomplished his designs, whom should he meet, but his aforesaid cousin Samuel, whom he attempted to shun, but Sam knew him too well. Capt. Hale soon found he was advertised, and so particularly described that he could not get through Long Island. He therefore attempted to escape by the way of King's Bridge, and so far succeeded as to get to the outer guard, where he was suspected, apprehended, carried back and tried, and yet would have been acquitted, had not his affectionate and grateful cousin Samuel, appeared and made oath that he was a captain in the continental army, and that he was a spy; in consequence of which, he was immediately hung up. However, at the gallows, he made a sensible and spirited speech; among other things, told them they were shedding the blood of the innocent, and that if he had ten thousand lives, he would lay them all down, if called to it, in defence of his injured, bleeding country.

Gifted with a high order of intellect, he was a scholar from choice --and parental assistance encouraged his youthful efforts. • He graduated at Yale College in the year 1773, with the highest reputation as a scholar, a man of truth, and a lover of humanity. Before reaching the early age of twenty-one, the battle of Lexington prompted him to obey the watch-word of liberty which

NOTE.-1776. Maj. John Bigelow, with a fine company of matross, started from Hartford for Quebec, on the 2d of April, 1776.

There were in New York over 10,000 continental troops, besides those of the New York province, April 8th, 1776.

Congress resolved that all ships and other vessels, and all goods, wares, and merchandise, owned by any inhabitants of Great Britain, taken on the high seas, or between high or low water mark, should be judged a lawful prize.

On the 27th day of March, 1776, the committee of inspection of fifteen towns in Hartford county, duly warned, met at the state house, in Hartford, to take into consideration the alarming prices of West India goods, and to regulate prices in the country-which they did on West India rum, New England rum, molasses, sugars, coffee, and salt. And as indirect means had in some cases been used, upon committees of inspection, to obtain India tea, under a pretence for the sick, by applying to committees of other towns for permission to purchase it. The board resolved that no license to purchase tea except for the sick, should be granted, and then only when the person applying, and the sick person needing it, resided in the town where such application should be madewith the name of the person applying, the exact quantity wanted, and the name of the sick person entered in the permit, and the permit left with the seller to whom directed-and the tea to be sold at the rate of 4s. and 6d. per pound.-[Connecticut Courant.]

April 15, 1776. So violent were the whigs against the tories in this State during the war, that the tories were published in capitals, in the Connecticut Courant, on the first page of the paper, in the following manner: Persons held up to Public View as Enemies to the Country-Jonathan Hill, Alford, Massachusetts Bay; Stephen Sears, Sharon, Ct.; Lieut. Ebenezer Orvis, Farmington, Ct.; David Vaughn, Jericho, Massachusetts Bay.-Note. Stephen Sears made his confession before the committee of inspection of Sharon, which was accepted 30th of April, '76.

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May 20th 1776. Capt. David Hawley sailed from Stratford on the 17th of March, 1776: on the 21st day of March he was taken by the Bellona of 6 guns and 8 swivels; the British crews sprang on board eager for plunder, damned Capt. Hawley, his crew, and country; he with his men were taken and put on board the Bellona-about 10 at night they joined the Rose, Glasgow, and Swan, men-of-war; he with his crew were put on board the Rose, and the next day sailed into Newport. Liberty was given him to get his clothes from his own sloop, he found his chest broken, and all his clothes stolen. They offered Capt. Hawley 5s. sterling per day, a good cabin for his use, and to pay for his vessel after the war closed, his choice of a plantation in any part of the

called him to the hardships of war, and he accepted the commission of a captain, under Col. Knowlton, of Ashford. He was soon called to encounter the dangers of war, and was actively engaged in the disastrous campaign for the defence of New York. Here he conceived the bold project of capturing a sloop of the enemy, containing supplies; success crowned his efforts,

continent, if he would act as their pilot, which he refused; in consequence of which, he was parted from his men on board the Glasgow, without even the privilege of writing to his mate. The Glasgow on the 5th of April, sailed from Newport, and after a severe action at sea, arrived in Halifax in eleven days, where Capt. Hawley remained two weeks; but on the 7th of May, he with eight others, escaped in a small boat and went to Old York. [Conn. Courant.]

Extract of a letter published in the Connecticut Courant, May 20th, 1776. "A gang of tories have been discovered in the neighborhood of Fairfield, taken and imprisoned. These and others undoubtedly corresponded with the enemies of America; and a line of intelligence from hence to Quebec has been kept up, whereby every movement of ours has been made known to our enemies. And by these miscreants, the British prisoners are assisted to escape. If these internal enemies are suffered to proceed in their hellish schemes, our ruin is certain; but if they are destroyed, the power of Hell and Britain will never prevail against us. Rouse then, my countrymen, search out the nest of these vultures, and bring them to the punishment they merit."

On the 30th of May, 1776, Capt. Niles, in the Spy, privateer, on a cruise between Montauk Point and Block Island, was chased into New London, by the Cerberus frigate: she followed the Spy in as far as the race and left her; the Spy lost her top-mast. Capt. Jones in a privateer, Capt. Brooks in a New Haven privateer, who sailed from New London with Capt. Niles, put into Newport.

News arrived at New London, June 7th, 1776, that the French Court had taken off the prohibition on the exportation of gun powder from France, and that large quantities of it arrived daily in the West Indies-which caused great joy in the States.

By a letter dated Boston, June 13th, 1776, the writer states that on Friday last, the frigate Milford, of 28 guns, came up with the Yankee Hero, privateer, Capt. Tracy, of Newburyport, off Cape Ann, and had an engagement of near two hours; when the Yankee Hero, struck to the frigate, being vastly superior in force. Capt. Tracy was wounded in his leg; Lieut. Main badly wounded; Rowe, of Cape Ann, lost an arm; four were killed, and fourteen wounded.

June 24th. Thirty-three and a quarter tons of salt petre manufactured in Connecticut previous to the 4th of June, had been received in store for the colony, to supply the powder mills, two of which mills were in full operation, and the third nearly completed.

By a letter dated Boston; June 19th, 1776, from Capt. Seth Harding, of the brig Defence, in the Connecticut service, to Gov. Trumbull, it is stated that he

and the heroic character which he gained in the army, for this daring enterprise, probably cost him his life.

After the fatal action of the 27th of August, and the subsequent retreat of the Americans from New York, Gen. Washington, desirous of obtaining information with regard to the strength, position, and probable movements of the enemy, determined, with

sailed last Sunday from Plymouth, that he soon heard firing at the northward; and in the evening he fell in with four armed schooners, near the entrance of Boston harbor; he there learned, that the schooners had been engaged with an English ship and brig, and were obliged to quit the action-that the Defence soon after went into Nantucket road, where he found a ship and brig at anchor ; and the Defence fell in between them and cast anchor, about 11 o'clock, P. M. He then hailed the ship, and received the answer-from Great Britain. Capt. Harding ordered her to strike her colors, to America. They answered, by asking, what brig is that? he told him the brig Defence. Then Capt. Harding again hailed him, and informed him he disliked to kill his men, but that he would have the ship at all events, and again ordered her to strike her colors. When the Mayor replied yes, I'll strike, and then fired a broad side at the Defence, which was immediately returned, and the engagement lasted three hours, when the ship and brig both struck to the Defence. The Defence lost no men, and had but nine wounded; the enemy had eighteen killed, and several wounded.

Capt. Harding took from the two vessels, 210 prisoners, among whom was Col. Campbell, of Gen. Frazer's regiment of Highlanders. The Mayor was killed in the battle.

Capt. Harding also stated, that on the 18th of June, a ship was seen in Boston Bay, and came towards the entrance of the harbor-that Capt. Harding hoisted sails, with four schooners in company, and took the ship without an engagement, with 112 Highlanders on board. He stated his brig was much damaged in her sails and rigging.

In June, 1776, there was a meeting of the inn keepers, on the East side of Connecticut river, in Hartford county, when they unanimously resolved to purchase no rum by the hogshead or barrel at the exorbitant price it was then selling, for four months. And further agreed to sell all liquors at their houses, at their usual prices, for the time. Said meeting was then adjourned until October, and all inn holders and retailers of liquors, were requested to take such measures as would prevent monopolies for the good of the country.

June 29, 1776. The committee to superintend prisoners stationed in this colony, resolved that no prisoner under the committee should be absent from their lodgings after dark, on pain of imprisonment. And that all prisoners of war in the colony (except officers) should be permitted to work at their trades for wages, who were able, and such as would not work as aforesaid, should be confined, and subsist upon the billeting allowed by Congress.

New York, July 4th, 1776. Last Wednesday, passed through New York, Gov. Franklin, of New Jersey, on his way to Gov. Trumbull, at Lebanon; Gov. Franklin is a noted tory and ministerial tool, and exceedingly busy in perplexing

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