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place in England in the arbitrary reigns of some of the Stuarts. In those times a demand of excessive bail was often made against persons, who were odious to the court, and its favourites; and on failing to procure it, they were committed to prison. Enormous fines and amercements were also sometimes imposed, and cruel and vindictive punishments inflicted. Upon this subject Mr. Justice Blackstone has wisely remarked, that sanguinary laws are a bad symptom of the distemper of any state, or at least of its weak constitution. The laws of the Roman kings, and the twelve tables of the Decemvirs, were full of cruel punishments; the Porcian law, which exempted all citizens from sentence of death, silently abrogated them all. In this period the republic flourished. Under the emperors severe laws were revived, and then the empire fell.

1007. The next amendment is: "The enumeration "in the constitution of certain rights shall not be con"strued to deny, or disparage others retained by the "people." This clause was manifestly introduced to prevent any perverse, or ingenious misapplication of the well known maxim, that an affirmation in particular cases implies a negation in all others; and é converso, that a negation in particular cases implies an affirmation in all others. The maxim, rightly understood, is perfectly sound and safe; but it has often been strangely forced from its natural meaning into the support of the most dangerous political heresies.

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§ 1008. The next and last amendment is: "The powers not delegated to the United States by the "constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are re"served to the states respectively, or to the people."

§1009. This amendment is a mere affirmation of what, upon any just reasoning, is a necessary rule of

interpreting the constitution. Being an instrument of limited and enumerated powers, it follows irresistibly, that what is not conferred, is withheld, and belongs to the state authorities, if invested by their constitutions of government respectively in them; and if not so invested, it is retained BY THE PEOPLE, as a part of their residuary sovereignty. When this amendment was before congress, a proposition was moved, to insert the word "expressly " before "delegated," so as to read "the powers not expressly delegated to the United States by the constitution," &c. On that occasion it was remarked, that it is impossible to confine a government to the exercise of express powers. There must necessarily be powers admitted by implication, unless the constitution should descend to the most minute details. It is a general principle, that all corporate bodies possess all powers incident to a corporate capacity, without being absolutely expressed. The motion was accordingly negatived. Indeed, one of the great defects of the confederation was, (as we have already seen,) that it contained a clause, prohibiting the exercise of any power, jurisdiction, or right, not expressly delegated. The consequence was, that congress were crippled at every step of their progress; and were often compelled by the very necessities of the times to usurp powers, which they did not constitutionally possess ; and thus, in effect, to break down all the great barriers against tyranny and oppression.

§ 1010. It is plain, therefore, that it could not have been the intention of the framers of this amendment to give it effect, as an abridgment of any of the powers granted under the constitution, whether they are express or implied, direct or incidental. Its sole design is to exclude any interpretation, by which other powers

should be assumed beyond those, which are granted. All that are granted in the original instrument, whether express or implied, whether direct or incidental, are left in their original state. All powers not delegated, (not, all powers not expressly delegated,) and not prohibited, are reserved. The attempts, then, which have been made from time to time, to force upon this language an abridging, or restrictive influence, are utterly unfounded in any just rules of interpreting the words, or the sense of the instrument. Stripped of the ingenious disguises, in which they are clothed, they are neither more nor less, than attempts to foist into the text the word "expressly;" to qualify, what is general, and obscure, what is clear, and defined. They make the sense of the passage bend to the wishes and prejudices of the interpreter; and employ criticism to support a theory, and not to guide it. One should suppose, if the history of the human mind did not furnish abundant proofs to the contrary, that no reasonable man would contend for an interpretation founded neither in the letter, nor in the spirit of an instrument. Where is controversy to end, if we desert both the letter and the spirit? What is to become of constitutions of government, if they are to rest, not upon the plain import of their words, but upon conjectural enlargements and restrictions, to suit the temporary passions and interests of the day? Let us never forget, that our constitutions of government are solemn instruments, addressed to the common sense of the people and designed to fix, and perpetuate their rights and their liberties. They are not to be frittered away to please the demagogues of the day. They are not to be violated to gratify the ambition of political leaders. They are to speak in the same voice now, and for ever.

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They are of no man's

private interpretation. They are ordained by the will of the people; and can be changed only by the sovereign command of the people.

§ 1011. It has been justly remarked, that the erection of a new government, whatever care or wisdom may distinguish the work, cannot fail to originate questions of intricacy and nicety; and these may, in a particular manner, be expected to flow from the establishment of a constitution, founded upon the total, or partial incorporation of a number of distinct sovereignties. Time alone can mature and perfect so compound a system; liquidate the meaning of all the parts; and adjust them to each other in a harmonious and consistent whole.

INDEX.

A.

ACCOUNTS, Public, to be published
ACCUSATION, Self, Criminals not bound to
ADJOURNMENT of Congress, by whom
of each House

ADMIRALTY, Jurisdiction. (See JUDICIARY)
ADMISSION of new States into the Union

ALIENS, who are

suits by, and against

ALIEN ACT, whether constitutional

AMBASSADORS, appointment of

Receiving of

Dismission of

Protection, and rights of
Suits by and against

AMENDMENTS OF CONSTITUTION, how made

APPEAL, Nature and Effect of

APPEALS from State Courts

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486, 487
659, 660,662, 663
295, 412, 574, 576

APPELLATE JURISDICTION. (See JUDICIARY)
APPOINTMENTS, to office by president, and senate

By congress, and heads of

departments

When discretionary in con-

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When the party is in office

573

573-574

235-247

338-341

346, 486

gress

When complete

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ARMY AND NAVY, power to create and regulate
ARREST of Members of Congress

ARTS AND SCIENCE, Promotion of

ATTAINDER, Prohibition of Bills of, by congress
by States

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