Shankara and Indian Philosophy
SUNY Press, 24/12/1992 - 285 من الصفحات
According to Advaita-Vedanta, God or Brahman is identical with the inner self (the Atman) of each person, while the rest of the world is nothing but objective illusion (maya). Shankara maintains that there are two primary levels of existence and knowledge: the higher knowledge that is Brahman itself, and the relative, limited knowledge, regarded as the very texture of the universe. Consequently, the task of a human being is to reach the absolute unity and the reality of Brahman in other words, to reach the innermost self within his or her own being, discarding on the way all temporary characteristics and attributes.
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accepted according action activity actually Advaita Advaitist appear arguments ātman attributes avidyā become beginning body Brahman Buddhist called cause century cognition Commentary on Brahmasūtra concept concerning connected consciousness considered corresponding course defined definition dependent determined direct doctrine entity essence essentially eternal existence followers foundation Gaudapāda Hacker higher History ideas identical important Indian Indian Philosophy inner instance interpretation Jainas jīva kind knowledge known later liberation limits logical maintains manifested māyā means mentioned mind nature notion object opinion opponents opposed original orthodox perception person philosophical polemics possible practice presented probably problem pure Rāmānuja reality reasoning reference regarded relation religious sacred Sankara sayings scholars schools sense separate similar soul speak specific śruti standpoint sūtra teacher teaching term texts tion tradition treatise true ultimate universe Upanişads usually valid Vedanta Vedic Vide views whole