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United States shall be appointed an elector of President or Vice-President of the United States OFFICE of President United States. Eligibility of a person to the office of President of the United States. (See Eligi bility.)... OFFICE. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President; and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be removed or a President shall be elected...

The office now devolves first upon the Vice-President, next upon the presiding officer of the Senate; and lastly, upon the Speaker of the House of Representatives; and elections are provided for, n. 172.

OFFICE, tenure of. Those holding to continue, how long, n. 184, pp. 179, 180, § 1, 4. The cabinet to hold during the presidential term, subject to removal. Id. § 1. Upon suspension of office, duties of, how performed. Id. § 2. The effect of the suspension from. Id. When offices remain in abeyance, Id. p. 180, § 3. To hold contrary to law, how punished, Id. § 5. To appoint to, contrary to law, how punished, Id. § 6. Duties of the President on naming any person to office, n. 154, p. 181, § 8. No person to be paid for exercising office contrary to the act; punishment for, Id. § 9. The decisions before the law, n. 184, p. 181.

OFFICE. Oath of office of President of the United States (See Oath, n. 242.)

........

OFFICES. The President may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officers in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices..

OFFICES.

As to who those seven officers are, see note 176.

The judges, both of the Supreme and Inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office

That is for life or until impeached. See notes 194, 197, 198. All offices to be established by the Constitution or law, n. 181. What are offices, Id. The power to appoint to includes the power to remove, n. 184. Now regulated by the Tenure of Office law, Id. p. 179. OFFICERS of the army and navy can only be removed by courtmartial, n. 184, p. 179. Tenure of civil offices-Cabinet, Id. When subject to suspension and removal, and the consequences, Id. Who to exercise the temporary powers of, Id. § 2, 3. To be commissioned by the President when, n. 184, p. 180, § 6.

OFFICERS.

The House of Representatives shall choose their
Speaker and other officers..

OFFICERS. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a
President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-Presi-
dent....

List of presiding officers, n. 38. When they become
President, n. 172.

OFFICERS of militia. The appointment of officers of the militia
reserved to the States respectively.

125.

This was in effect destroyed by the conscript law, n. OFFICERS of the United States. (See Appointments of.).... OFFICERS. The President shall commission all the officers of the United States..

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OFFICERS. All civil officers of the United States shall be removed

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from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason,
bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors...

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None but civil officers are subject to impeachment,
n. 191. Senators are not, notes 191, 194.

OFFICERS. All the executive and judicial officers, both of the
United States and of the several States, shall be bound
by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution.......
For cath of office and test oath see n. 142.

No person shall be a senator or representative in
Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President,
or hold any office, civil or military, under the United
States, or under any State, who, having previously
taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer
of the United States, or as a member of any State
legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any
State, to support the Constitution of the United States,
shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against
the same,
or given aid or comfort to the enemies
thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds
of each house, remove such disability. Amendments....

This disqualification extended to members of the Re-
construction Conventions and to voters for delegates,
n. 276, p. 287 § 5. The expurgatory oath to reach them,
n. 276 (Supplementary Act), § 1. The disqualification ex-
plained, n. 276, p. 287 § 6. The commanders of districts
allowed to remove any officers of the rebel States, n. 276
(Second Supplementary Act), p. 284, § 2. This third sec-
tion discussed, n. 281. May overrule the test oath as to
those not disqualified, n. 281.

Oшo. Rule of suffrage in, n. 17. Representatives by the census
of 1860, n. 24. Number of inhabitants through each de-
cade, n. 24. pp. 69, 70. Assigned to the sixth judicial cir-
cuit, n. 197. Ratified the thirteenth constitutional amend-
ment, n. 274; the fourteenth, n. 275. And withdrew rati-
fication, Id.

ONE-FIFTH of the members present. The yeas and nays of the
members of either house, on any question, shall, at the
desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on
the journal....

OPINION. The President may require the opinion, in writing, of
the principal officer in each of the executive departments.
These opinions, how given and by whom, n. 176.
ORDAIN and establish this Constitution for the United States of
America, &c. We the people do. Preamble
(See America-Constitution.)

ORDAIN and establish. The judicial power of the United States
shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such in-
ferior courts as the Congress may, from time to time,
ordain and establish

As Congress has the power to establish, it may regulate
the jurisdiction, n. 136."

ORDER, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate
and House of Representatives may be necessary, except
on questions of adjournment, shall be presented to the

OREGON.

President...

Number of inhab-

(See Concurrence-Resolution.)
Rule of suffrage in, n. 17, p. 63. One representative
under the census of 1860, n. 24, p. 69.
itants under the decades, n. 24, pp. 69,
Great Britain in relation to, n. 178, p.
the ninth judicial circuit, n. 197, p. 192.
teenth constitutional amendment, n. 274. And the four-
teenth, n. 275.

70.

175.

Treaty with
Assigned to
Ratified the thir-

ORGANIZING the militia. Congress shall have power to provide
for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia
(See Militia.)

ORIGINAL jurisdiction. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other
public ministers, and consuls, and those in which a State

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shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original
jurisdiction

This original jurisdiction is confined to two classes of
cases, defined, n. 210, p. 203. Co-extensive with the judi-
cial power, Id. Restricts Congress, n. 210. (See Jurisdic-
tion, notes 210, 211.)

ORIGINATE. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the
House of Representatives

The reason of this rule, n. 64. Revenue defined, n. 65.
ORIGINATED. Every bill, resolution, order, or vote, not approved,
shall be returned by the President, with his objections, to
that house in which it shall have originated...
When returned, n. 68.

OVERT act. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on
the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act....
(See Treason, n. 215.)

OWNER. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any
house without the consent of the owner. Amendments.
The occupant is the owner, n. 250.

OWNERS of slaves. No person held to service or labor in one
State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall,
in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be dis-
charged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered
up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor
may be due....

Person and State defined, n. 226. Escaping defined,
n. 227. The owner was clothed with full authority to re-
capture, n. 227.

PACA, WILLIAM, of Maryland. Signed the Dec. of Ind. p. 7.
PAINE, ROBERT TREAT, of Massachusetts

p. 7.

Signed the Dec. of Ind.

PAPERS. The right of the people to be secure in their effects
against unreasonable searches or seizures shall not be vio-
lated. Amendments.

People, and searches and seizures, defined, n. 251. War-
rant defined and the reasons given, n. 252.
PARDONS. The President shall have power to grant pardons....

Pardon defined, n. 177. May be granted as well before as
after trial, n. 177. The extent of the pardon; it must be
accepted; it blots out the offense, n. 177. p. 173. The ef-
fect of the pardon of the rebels, notes 46, 177, p. 174. As to
whether it overcame the test oath, n. 46. Did not give the
right to vote or hold office in the rebel States, n. 276
(Second Supplementary act), p. 288, § 7.

PARSONS, R. C. United States Marshal, n. 197.

PASS any bills. No State shall pass any bill of attainder, ex post
facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts....
(See Attainder, note, n. 142. Ex post facto, rotes 143,
156.)

PASSED the House of Representatives and Senate. Every bill,
resolution, &c., passed by the House of Representatives
and Senate, shall be presented to the President, &c.....
PASSED. Bills, resolutions, &c., returned by the President, may
be passed be two-thirds of both houses...

(See Bills, n. 66-70.)

PATENT rights. Congress shall have power to promote the pro-
gress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited
times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their
respective writings and discoveries..

See the terms defined and discussed, notes 107, 108.

PATENT office. Description of, n. 108.

PATENTS are to be liberally construed, n. 108.

PATERSON, WILLIAM, of New Jersey. Signed the Constitution,
p. 42. Associate Justice, n. 197, p. 193.

PAY the debts of the United States. Congress shall have power
to pay the debts of the United States.

The object of this phrase, n. 78. The amount of the

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debts since the foundation of the government, n. 78, pp.
97, 100. (See Public Debt.)

PAYMENT of debts. No State shall make any thing but gold and
silver coin a tender in payment of debts..

But Congress may issue treasury notes and make them
a legal tender in the payment of debts, notes 84, 97, 100.
(See Arrest.)

PEACE. For a breach of the peace a senator or representative

may be arrested..

PEACE. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, keep
troops or ships of war in time of peace.

PEACE. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any
house without the consent of the owner. Amendments..

(See House.)

PECK, JAMES H. Trial of, notes 36, 194.
PENALTIES. Each house may be authorized to compel the at-
tendance of absent members, in such manner and under
such penalties as each house may provide..

PENN, JOHN, of North Carolina. Signed Dec. of Ind. p. 7.
Signed Articles of Confederation. p. 21.

PENNINGTON, WILLIAM. Speaker of the House of Representa-
tives. n. 26.

PENNSYLVANIA. Signed the Dec. of Ind. p. 7. One of the Con-
federation, p. 9. Signed the articles thereof, p. 21. Signed
the Constitution, pp. 42, 252. Qualifications of voters,
n. 17, p. 63.
PENNSYLVANIA. Entitled to eight representatives in first Con-
gress..

Twenty-four under the census of 1860, notes 24, 28, 67,
pp. 63, 69. Qualification of suffrage, n. 17. Population
under each decade, n. 24, pp. 69, 70. Assigned to the
third judicial circuit, n. 197. Ratified the thirteenth
constitutional amendment, n. 274; the fourteenth, n. 275.
PEOPLE United States ordain and establish this Constitution.
Preamble

By the people, not by the State in their sovereign
capacity. How by the people. Compared with citizens,
notes 6, 16, 17, 24, 220, 221, 274, 281.

PEOPLE. Members of House of Representatives to be chosen
every second year by the people of the several States....
The people here defined and compared. The real actors
are the voters, n. 16.

PEOPLE represented are-all free persons, those bound for a term
of years, Indians taxed, and three-fifths of all other per-

sons

That is two-fifths only of the slaves were excluded,
n. 24. The free blacks were always counted, n. 24.
PEOPLE. The enumeration of the people to be made within three
years after the first meeting of Congress, and every ten
years thereafter, in such manner as they may by law
direct

The result of these various enumerations, notes 24,
69-71.

PEOPLE. Congress shall make no law abridging the rights of the
people peaceably to assemble and to petition the govern-
ment for a redress of grievances. Amendments..
PEOPLE. The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not
be infringed. Amendments

Here used in the broad sense of the preamble, n. 248.
PEOPLE. The right of the people to be secure in their persons,
houses, papers,
and effects, against unreasonable searches
and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrants shall
issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affir-
mation, and particularly describing the place to be
searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Amend-

ments

(See note 249.)

PEOPLE. The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights,

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shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained
by the people. Amendments..

Here used in the sense of the preamble, n. 268.
PEOPLE. The powers not delegated to the United States by the
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are re-
served to the States respectively, or to the people. Amend-

ments..

PEOPLE of the rebel States. When they shall have formed a con-
stitution, n. 276, p. 283, § 5. Until the people shall have
been admitted to representation in Congress. Id. § 6. (See
Person.)
PERSON. Qualification of a person to be a representative in Con-

gress.

(And see Qualifications, n. 46.)

PERSON. Qualification of a person to be a senator in Congress
Person defined and criticised. Is masculine, notes 16,
35, 46.
PERSON. No person shall be convicted on an impeachment with-
out the concurrence of two-thirds of the senators present.
PERSON. No person holding any office under the United States
shall be a member of either house during his continuance
in office...

The reason and effects of such disqualification defined
and discussed, notes 25, 62, 63, 150, 151.
PERSON. No person holding any office of profit or trust under tho
United States, shall, without the consent of the Congress,
accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any
kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign State
This inhibition extends to none but office-holders,
n. 151.

PERSON.

No person, holding an office of trust or profit under the
United States, shall be appointed an elector of President
and Vice-President..

PERSON. Eligibility of a person to be President or Vice-Presi-
dent of the United States. (See Eligibility.)..
PERSON. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the
testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on
confession in open court

PERSON. No attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood
or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.
This extends to every manner of person, n. 223. The
definition is only limited by other requirements of the
clause, notes 223, 224.

PERSON. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or
other crime, who shall flee from justice and be found in
another State, shall, on demand of the executive autho-
rity of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to
be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.
Person defined to mean every person, n. 253.

PERSON. No person held to service or labor in one State, under
the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in conse
quence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged
from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on
claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be
due...

Person is limited in practice to slaves and apprentices,
notes 236, 237.

PERSON. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other-
wise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indict-
ment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land
or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in
time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be
subject, for the same offense, to be twice put in jeopardy
of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal
case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of
life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor
shall private property be taken for public use without just
compensation. Amendments..

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