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citizen of the United States as such; otherwise it would be nonsense for the fourteenth amendment to prohibit a State from abridging them; and he proceeds to argue that admission to the bar of the State of a person who possesses the requisite learning and character is one of those which the State may not deny. In this latter proposition we are not able to concur with the counsel. We agree with him that there are privileges and immunities belonging to citizens of the United States in that relation and character, and that it is these, and these alone, which a State is forbidden to abridge. But the right to admittance to practice law in the court of a State is not one of these. This right in no sense depends on citizenship of the United States. It has not, as far as we know, ever been made in any State, or in any case, to depend upon citizenship at all. Certainly many prominent and distinguished lawyers have been admitted to practice, both in State and federal courts, who were not citizens of the United States or of any State. But on whatever basis this right may be placed, so far as it can have any relation to citizenship at all, it would seem that, as to the courts of a State, it would relate to citizenship of a State, and as to the federal courts, it would relate to citizenship of the United States. The opinion delivered in the slaughter-house cases from Louisiana renders an elaborate argument in the present case unnecessary, for unless we are wholly and radically mistaken in the principles on which these cases are decided, the right to control and regulate the granting of license to practice law in the courts of a State is one of those powers which are not transferred for its protection to the federal government, as its exercise is in no manner governed or controlled by citizenship of the United States in the party seeking such license. It is unnecessary to repeat the argument on which the judgment on these cases is founded. It is sufficient to say they are conclusive of the present case. The judgment of the State court is therefore affirmed."

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ACTS OF CONGRESS. (See CONGRESS.)

ACQUISITION OF TERRITORY. (See FOREIGN TERRITORY.)

ACCUSATION,

self, not to be compelled.

ADJOURNMENT OF CONGRESS

of each house

ADMINISTRATORS,

legislative authority for sales by

Section
1916-1928

1281

1345, 1347

1782-1788

303, 304, 412, 414, 1560, 1562
843-867

1958 n.

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nature and effect of .

to the crown in the colonial period

in prize causes to Congress under the Confederation

APPELLATE JURISDICTION

(See JUDICIARY.)

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523 n., 551 n., 552 n.

1760-1776
175, 176
250

1701-1747

1505, 1524-1536
1505-1535, 1536

1505-1535, 1536

1545-1554

1554

1555-1559

1964

630-645, 673-683

683 n.

1963

951, 998-1004

1940

958, 975-991, 1179, 1346, 1349
958, 1273-1278

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