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was ordered. The intrepid Wadsworth now stepped forward, and said sternly: "If I am interrupted again, I will make daylight shine through you in one moment." This meaning language exerted a suitable influence, and Fletcher returned to New York. From this period until the opening of the Seven Years' War, Connecticut steadily advanced in strength and prosperity. In 1700, Yale College was founded at Saybrook by a few clergymen, and named after Elihu Yale, one of its most active supporters.

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E have had occasion, in the annals of Massachusetts, to notice the foundation of this little state by Roger Williams. After fleeing from Salem, and encountering many hardships, he reached a fertile spot at the head of a winding bay, which he named Providence. His friendship with the Indians, who had protected him when an exile, and whose cause he had always espoused, enabled him without difficulty to procure for himself and a few followers of his adverse fortune a small territory. Here he proclaimed his laudable principle of general toleration; and, receiving with kindness all who sought refuge in his domain, made it the chief resort of the partisans of the movement. Its numerous votaries, thrown out by the rigid orthodoxy of Massachusetts, found here a hearty welcome. A certain motley character, especially in regard to creed and worship, was the

necessary consequence. Yet, even in periods of the most rapid innovation, there appears a tendency to unity, caused by the newer and bolder sects absorbing those which preceded, and whose tenets had lost the gloss of novelty. The first great accession was from Mrs. Hutchinson's party; and though their views seem to have had little resemblance to his, the two were quickly amalgamated. These refugees, possessing considerable property, made a large purchase from the Indians, which, combined with Providence, composed the state of Rhode Island. The Baptist movement next followed, which Mrs. Hutchinson and her sister so zealously embraced that they prevailed upon Williams himself, at an advanced age, to submit anew to the sacred rite. Even he, however, was struck with horror at the wild effusions of Gorton, and at seeing them propagated in his settlement with the usual success. Actuated by his characteristic mildness, however, he merely effected an arrangement by which that personage, with his fervid adherents, went out and formed another establishment. This was soon followed by the Quaker excitement, which, in its greatest violence, he had sound judgment enough to repress; but as he allowed to its adherents a refuge denied everywhere else, Rhode Island soon became the point whence they issued forth to the neighbouring states, and upon which they returned. They experienced also the usual success of daring innovators, and, notwithstanding all his efforts, soon became the ruling sect. Mrs. Hutchinson was dead; but her sister, Katherine Scott, and her intimate friend Mrs. Dyer, ranked high among the gifted prophetesses.

From these causes, the colony silently grew, and in 1680 was reported to contain five hundred planters and five hundred other men, whence, as these last were apparently adults, we may infer an entire population of about four thousand. Newport was the harbour; but as yet there was very little either of commerce or of shipping. The religious sects were of course numerous, especially the Baptists and Quakers. The settlement, however, had all along been viewed with an evil eye by the people of Massachusetts, who saw in it the chief pivot on which turned that enthusiastic movement by which they were so much annoyed. Its exclusion from the union of the colonies in 1643 marked strongly this spirit, and placed it in a somewhat precarious situation. Williams, however, who in 1644 went to Britain, where the independents were then in full power, and his friend Vane one of their chief leaders, easily obtained a popular charter for the towns of Providence, Newport, and Portsmouth, with


265 a recommendation equivalent to an order, that New England should exchange good offices with him. On his return he was received with a species of triumph; and his still jealous neighbours were obliged to content themselves with shutting their state against him and his people. Again, after the Restoration, John Clarke, the agent of the colony, procured from Charles II. a fresh charter, securing all their privileges, and particularly confirming the right of religious freedom. That prince, however, in the end of his reign. and his successor, in a manner still more determined, applied themselves to cancel all the colonial charters. In July, 1685, accordingly. a quo warranto was issued against that of Rhode Island, which, being announced to the Assembly, they sent a very humble reply, declaring their intention not to stand suit with his majesty, but earnestly soliciting a continuance of their privileges, especially in regard to their faith. James accepted their submission, and, by his instructions, Andros, in December, 1686, dissolved the government, broke its seal, and assumed the entire administration. But, after the Revolution of 1688, the people laid hold "of their former gracious privileges," and shared in this respect the good fortune of Connecticut. They were allowed to resume their charter, which had never been legally forfeited.

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HE extensive region between Massachusetts and the country claimed by France under the name of Acadia, having early drawn the notice of English adventurers, the two most active members of the Plymouth Company, Sir Ferdinand Gorges and John Mason, undertook to colonize it. The latter, secretary to the council, obtained, in 1621, a grant of the lands between Salem and the Merrimack; and next year, in conjunction with Gorges, of those between the last-mentioned river and the Kennebeck, as far as the St. Lawrence. In 1629, and again in 1635, when the company was broken up, Mason acquired fresh patents for his portion, which then received the name of New Hampshire. In 1638, however, before the settlement had come to any maturity, he died, and his family were unable to derive any benefit from this vast donation. Sir Ferdinand, meantime, at the crisis of 1635, procured for himself exclu

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