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sively the whole territory from New Hampshire to the Kennebeck, and this was confirmed in 1639 by a patent from the king, when it received the name of Maine.

These proprietors appear to have set great value on their grants, and to have made active exertions to improve them. Dover and Portsmouth were early founded on the Piscataqua; and in 1635, Gorges sent out his nephew to govern the district. Yet their settlements made very slow progress. Being high church and monarchy men, they granted none of those franchises by which alone emigrants could be attracted to this northern soil; while to the aristocratic class Virginia offered a much more tempting resort. Only a few hardy adventurers were enticed by the abundant supply of fish and timber, who gradually formed along the coast small stations, adding the practice of a slight agriculture for the supply of immediate wants.

Massachusetts, however, began to overflow into these territories. In 1637, Wheelwright, the antinomian preacher, founded on the Piscataqua the town of Exeter, without paying much regard to the proprietor's rights, though he was ultimately obliged to submit to his officer, Williams. Three years afterwards, Massachusetts advanced claims to New Hampshire, as being within her patent; and although her pretensions were far from valid, her strength and the inclination of the people enabled her without difficulty to make them good. This new member was incorporated and endowed with all her political privileges. Several zealous ministers were sent, who are said to have greatly improved the people; but they had the discretion not to enforce any exclusive system, and during nearly forty years of this rule the foundations of solid prosperity were laid. The feeling spread among the small seaports which began to stud the coast of Maine, and they were successively, either at their own request, or by the consent of large majorities, incorporated with the others. The proprietors loudly, and with good show of reason, remonstrated against these proceedings, but without obtaining any redress. The independents, now in power, were adverse to them, and friendly to Massachusetts; while the people, included within the political system of the latter state, earnestly petitioned for its continuance.


A complete reverse took place at the restoration of Charles II., whose partialities were in favour of the old royalist proprietors, and against the Puritan colony. Gorges and Mason, grandsons of the original patentees, immediately applied for restitution of their rights, which was granted, and the commissioners then sent out were in

structed to enforce it. Yet the general court, by their local power, the affections of the inhabitants, and by constantly evading the demand for deputies duly empowered, contrived, during sixteen years, to retain the jurisdiction; but being, in 1677, brought before the chief justices of England, their pretensions were at once set aside. Mason was also obliged to yield his authority, though retaining a claim upon the lands. Maine was assigned to Gorges; but the rulers of Massachusetts contrived to purchase his rights for £1250, a sum, perhaps, above its actual value at the moment. They incurred reproach by treating it as a subject territory, appointing the governor and council, though they graciously allowed a popular legislature.

New Hampshire being thus thrown loose, it was determined to manage it as a royal province; and in 1682, Edward Cranfield was sent as administrator. His government was one continued scene of discontent on the part of the people, amounting sometimes to rebellion. Mr. Bancroft represents him as avowedly making it his sole object to amass money. It appears more certain that all his maxims were those of high prerogative; while Massachusetts had breathed among the people the Puritan and republican spirit in its full force. He wrote that while the clergy were allowed to preach, no true allegiance would be found in those parts." In 1685, he solicited his recall, declaring he should "esteem it the greatest happiness in the world to be allowed to remove from these unreasonable people." Presently after, this country with the whole of New England was united under the successive governments of Dudley and Andros. At the Revolution, it again became a separate and royal colony, though with some dependence on Massachusetts.

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JOTWITHSTANDING the para mount importance to which New York has attained, its early settlement was not accompanied by such striking circumstances as marked those of some other colonies.

About the year 1600, the attention of the English and Dutch had been directed to the discovery of a northern passage to India, which they hoped might at once be shorter, and enable them to escape the still formidable hostility of Spain. After this object had been vainly pursued by Frobisher, Davis, Barentz, and

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other navigators, it was resumed by Henry Hudson. Though a native of Holland, he was first employed by a company of English merchants, when he made the daring effort to cross the pole itself, and penetrated farther in that direction than any of his predecessors; but the icy barriers compelled him to return. He next attempted an eastern passage, between Nova Zembla and Spitzbergen, but again failed. His patrons in London then lost courage; but he, animated by the same ardour, solicited and obtained from the Dutch East India Company a small vessel, named the Crescent, to renew his researches. After another abortive endeavour at an eastern passage, he appears to have finally renounced that object; and steering toward the west, began to explore the American coast, from Newfoundland southwards. It had, indeed, been to a great extent both discovered and settled, yet not in such continuity as to preclude the hope of finding a deep bay leading to the Pacific, and through it to the East Indies. In the beginning of July he reached the great bank, and continued his course cautiously along the shores of Acadia. In 44° he touched at the mouth of a spacious river, which appears to have been the Penobscot, where the French were found carrying on a very active trade. In passing Cape Cod, his people landed at several points, and held intercourse with the natives. They then pursued their course through the open sea, till, on the 17th August, they came in sight of a low land, and soon afterwards found themselves off the bar of James's River, where they understood that the English had formed a settlement. No opening having yet occurred, it seemed expedient to return northward, keeping closer to the coast. They found it running north-west, and entered a great bay with rivers, evidently that of Delaware. The water was so shoaly, however, as to prevent its exploration, unless in pinnaces drawing only four or five feet. They proceeded therefore to the coast now called New Jersey, and were involved in the range of islands running parallel to it. The navigation was very difficult on account of storms and frequent shallows. At length Hudson came to a continuous land, good and pleasant, rising boldly from the sea, and bounded by high hills. He appeared to discover the mouths of three great rivers, which, however, could only be different channels, separated by islands, of the great stream now bearing his name. Boats were sent to sound the most northern of them, which was found to afford a good depth of water. They entered it, and were soon visited by large parties of natives in canoes, when a friendly exchange took place, of tobacco and maize for knives


271 and beads. Unfortunately, a boat, being sent to examine one of the other channels, was assailed by twenty of the savages in two skiffs, one of the seamen killed, and two wounded. This unhappy event poisoned their future intercourse with the Indians, whose friendly professions were henceforth considered as made only with a view to betray them. At one place, twenty-eight canoes, full of men, women, and children, approached and made overtures for trade; but their intentions being considered evil, they were not allowed to come on board. In ascending, the Hudson was found to be a noble stream, a mile broad, and bordered by lofty mountains. Seventeen days after entering it, the vessel, being embarrassed by shoals, stopped at a point where a small city has since been built, bearing the name of the discoverer. A boat sailed eight or nine leagues higher, somewhat above the site of Albany, where it was clear that the ship could not proceed farther. In this upper tract, the intercourse with the natives was very friendly, and even the suspicions of the crew were lulled. One party came on board, who being freely treated with wine and aquavitæ, became all merry, and one completely tipsy, the effects of which caused to his companions the greatest surprise. On the way down, they were repeatedly attacked by the large body which in ascending had excited their jealousy. On each occasion, a discharge of musketry, killing two or three, caused all the rest to take flight. On leaving the river, Hudson made directly for Europe, and arrived at Dartmouth on the 7th November, 1609.

He transmitted to the Dutch Company a flattering report of the country which he had discovered, and recommended a settlement. They gave him so little encouragement that he was obliged to seek employment from the London merchants, by whom he was sent on the remarkable voyage which resulted in the exploration of Hudson's bay, and in the melancholy event of his own death, through a mutiny of the crew.

In virtue of these discoveries the Dutch claimed the country, and in 1610 sent out a vessel for traffic. Stations were formed on Manhattan [New York] island, which, in 1613, were claimed by Argall. This authority was merely nominal, and was utterly disregarded by the Dutch government. In the following year a fort was built by some merchants, and other stations extended as far as the Mohawk.

In 1620 the Dutch West India Company was incorporated. Their privileges included the whole western coast of Africa, as far as the Cape, with all the eastern shores of America from Newfoundland to

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