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misgovernment. They resisted also the demands for money; and thus a perpetual strife reigned between them and the governor, who declared that nothing would remedy the evil but annexation to New York; and complained that, though his door was never shut, it was avoided, as if it had been treason to be seen in his company.

ENN, meantime, passed through many trials; and, after being repeatedly acquitted, was arraigned on fresh charges. However, he was strongly supported by Locke, Rochester, and other friends; and as nothing could be proved against him except a personal attachment to King James, without sharing his bigotry, William, in August, 1694, passed the patent for his restoration. As he could not go out in person, Markham was again appointed deputy. But the Assembly, though pleased to be rid of the royal government, did not show any greater deference to that of the proprietary.

N 1699, Penn again visited the colony. His object seems to have been to obtain the consent of the people to a constitution which, granting them every reasonable franchise, might preserve to himself the ordinary powers of an executive head. After much difficulty and opposition, he had the address to carry his point. The original frame was surrendered, and a new one formed, based on the more common and approved principles of representative government. The Assembly, as elsewhere, was to have the power of originating bills; but these were to require the assent of the proprietary. He obtained also the important privilege of naming the council, and had thus to contend with only one popular body instead of two.

Penn had come to the colony with the avowed intention of ending his days in it; but he was prevented doing so in consequence of the introduction into parliament of a bill for the abolition of all proprietory governments. The measure was supported even by a considerable body of his own colonists. On reaching England, however, he was gratified to find that the project had been renounced and the bill withdrawn. He acquired considerable favour with Queen Anne; but circumstances prevented his return to Pennsylvania. He died in 1718, leaving the government of the province to his sons, John, Thomas, and Richard. At the opening of the Revolutionary War, it was one of the principal colonies, and Philadelphia was become the metropolis of the British possessions.

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HE English were not so eager to settle the regions now called Carolina as they had been those of Virginia and New England. It will be remembered that the Spanish claim to that part of the Atlantic coast north of Florida was still good as far as Albemarle Sound; and the first intruders on its soil had learned by fatal experience that his Catholic majesty was not disposed to permit encroachments on his territory without at least an attempt to resist them. If we except a few settlers at Mansemond river, on the borders of Virginia, and some New

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England emigrants, who had purchased from the Indians a district around Cape Fear, no Englishman had, as late as the year 1630, made any effort to settle south of Virginia. In that year Sir Robert Heath obtained a patent; but being unable to fulfil the conditions, it was declared forfeited.

The first productive grant of this territory was given by Charles II. on the 24th of March, 1663, and included under the name of Carolina the whole coast from the 36th degree north to the river San Matheo. Among the patentees were Monk, duke of Albemarle, Lord Clarendon, Lord Ashley Cooper, afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury, Lord Berkeley, and his brother Sir William, governor of Virginia. Drummond, a prudent and popular man, was the first governor. Settlements were made at Albemarle and Cape Fear, while the emigrants enjoyed political and personal immunities greater than those of the neighbouring colonies. In 1665 a new patent was obtained, extending their territory to the Pacific. New privileges were heaped upon the settlers; Lord Shaftesbury, assisted by the celebrated John Locke, drew up for them a constitution designed by the authors as a monument of legislative wisdom. It provided for two orders of nobility, divided the territory into counties, each containing four hundred and eighty thousand acres, with one landgrave, or higher noble, and two caciques to each county. Lords of manors and freeholders were likewise established; but the tenants could hold no political franchise, nor attain to higher rank. The proprietors were to be eight in number, possessing the whole judicial power, with the supreme direction of all the tribunals. Such a ponderous system of barons, caciques, lords, and manors, might have suited the feudal ages; but it was totally unfit for the government of a new colony, and, although strenuously supported by the proprietors, never went into operation. Until the people should be ripe for its establishment, a series of temporary laws was established, more appropriate to the condition of the new territory.

Meanwhile the people, having become dissatisfied with the administrator and collector of the revenue, rose in a body, put him in prison, and summoned a parliament of their own. Culpepper, their leader, went to England to plead their cause; but he was there arrested for high treason, and thrown into prison. Lord Shaftesbury, however, procured his acquittal. The proprietors then sent out as governor Seth Sothel; but his administration was so unpopular as to lead to deposition by the colonists, and subsequent trial before their

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Assembly. He was banished for one year, and declared incapable of again holding the office of governor in Carolina.

The settlers now began to pay some attention to the more southern provinces. In 1670 they sent out a considerable body of emigrants under William Sayle, who was named governor. Dying soon after, he was succeeded by Sir John Yeamans, who was subsequently accused of sordid proceedings in carrying on what trade the youthful colony enjoyed. A season of dissatisfaction seems to have succeeded, which was terminated only by the appointment of Governor West, a man highly acceptable to the settlers, and who, during an administration of eight years, enjoyed almost unbounded popularity. Emigrants flocked to the territory, comprising among their number many of the valuable mechanics driven from France by the revocation of the edict of Nantes. Proposals were soon made for the founding of a city. These being favourably received by the people, a site was chosen on a high piece of ground above the Ashley river; but this was afterwards changed to another spot, called Oyster Point, at the junction of that stream with the Cooper. At the former place Old Charleston was founded in 1671, and the new city at the latter in

EST was succeeded in 1682 by Moreton; and he, in 1686, by Colleton, brother to one of the proprietors, and endowed with the rank of landgrave. Under these men, the spirit of faction, which had for some time slumbered, broke forth with violence; and, during several years, disputes of the most aggravated nature were carried on between the proprietors, the governor, and the colonists. Amid this ferment Seth Sothel suddenly made his appearance; and, by the influence of party, found no difficulty in gaining the office of his unpopular predecessor, and in calling a parliament which sanctioned all his proceedings. On hearing of this affair, the proprietors issued orders for his immediate recall, appointing Philip Ludwell as governor, with instructions to examine and report as to any real grievances. Locke's constitution, which here, as well as in the northern provinces, had given rise to the greatest disorder, was abrogated, and quiet in a general degree restored. But a new source of dissension was found in the numerous body of French Protestant refugees, who were regarded by the original "Church of England" settlers with feelings of national and religious aversion, and refused the rights of citizenship. At such treatment they were justly indignant; and disputes rose so high that the proprietors sent out one of their own body, John Archdale, a Quaker, with full power to investigate and redress grievances. Conducting himself with great prudence, he succeeded in greatly allaying the discontent of the Protestant settlers. After remaining a year, he left as his successor Joseph Blake, who steadily pursued the same system; so that in a few years parties became reconciled, and the French were admitted to all the rights of citizenship. In 1700 Blake was succeeded by Moore, who, two years after, planned and conducted an expedition against St. Augustine, which brought disgrace upon himself and a heavy debt on the colony. In 1706, the Spaniards, by way of retaliation, appeared before Charleston, and summoned it to surrender. Governor Nathaniel Johnson returned an indignant defiance. The invaders sent on shore a small party, who were immediately cut off. Six small vessels, under Captain Rhett, then sailed against their armament, which fled in alarm. An additional force, both of ships and troops, was subsequently captured by


the settlers.

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