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OTHING could exceed the astonishment and indignation with which the news of Cornwallis's surrender was received in England.

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ment assembled on the 27th of November, when the king recounted, with evident mortification, his losses in Virginia, but at the same time urged the vigorous prosecution of the war. In

the debate on this address, the opposition, led by Fox, Burke, and Pitt, were vehement in their denunciation of ministers and condemnation of all further proceedings against America. The usual vote of thanks was, however, carried by a large majority. Lord North then declared the purpose of the ministry to carry on a "war of posts," instead of operating by incursions into the interior. The opposition, however, strenuously opposed all such measures, boldly charging ministers with the prosecution of schemes whose palpable tendency was the dissolution of the monarchy. A

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each successive trial his lordship found himself losing ground; until at last, on the vote of an address to the king, presented by General Conway, praying for the discontinuance of the war, he was left in a minority of nineteen. Lord North then resigned, and a new cabinet was formed, under the auspices of the Marquis of Rockingham. That nobleman's death put an end to this administration; and on the 11th of July, 1782, the king prorogued parliament.

Popular opinion in both countries was now strongly in favour of peace, and at length the British monarch consented to the opening of negotiations. Mr. Fitzherbert and Mr. Oswald were appointed commissioners for England; and on the 30th of November, they met Messrs. Franklin, Adams, Jay, and Laurens, and agreed upon arrangements preliminary to a treaty between all the belligerent powers. On the 20th of January, 1783, France, Spain, Great Britain, and America, concluded the treaty of peace which secured the independence of the United States. Previous to this, [October 8, 1782,] Mr. John Adams had signed a treaty of amity and commerce with the United Provinces of Holland.

The campaign of 1782 was marked by but few military events. Wayne, with the Pennsylvania troops, had been sent into Georgia, where, about midnight of May 21, he attacked Colonel Brown, com

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mandant of Savannah, who had left that town in force, hoping to surprise Wayne. The British were totally defeated, with the loss of forty killed or wounded, and twenty prisoners. The victors had five killed, and two wounded. On the night of June 24, Wayne sustained a furious attack from a party of Creek Indians, whom he defeated, with the loss of one of their bravest chiefs. The royalists came out from Savannah to join the Indians; but they were driven back by Wayne, who captured a British standard and one hundred and twenty-seven loaded pack-horses. His own loss was thirteen killed and wounded. Savannah was evacuated by the enemy in July, and the war in that quarter ended.

On the 27th of August the lamented Colonel Laurens was mortally wounded during a skirmish of General Gist, with a large party of British, in South Carolina. On James's Island, Captain Wilmot, with a small party, attacked some British troops, but was killed, and his men were defeated. This was the last blood shed in the Revolution. Charleston was evacuated by General Leslie on the 14th of December, and Wayne took possession of it with five thousand troops.

In this year, the Hyder Ally, a Pennsylvania vessel of six guns,

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under Captain Joshua Barney, was attacked by two British vessels and a brig, while engaged in convoying a fleet of merchantmen to the Capes. By means of a skilful stratagem, she got into position to rake the brig, and in twenty-six minutes discharged twenty broadsides. The enemy then surrendered. It proved to be the General Monk, of eighteen guns. Barney's loss was four killed, eleven wounded; that of his enemy twenty killed, thirty-three wounded. Barney soon after captured a refugee schooner, which had given the Americans considerable trouble. On the other hand, the frigate South Carolina was taken by three large English vessels, appointed to watch her; and in the West Indies, the French fleet, under the Count de Grasse, was totally defeated and captured by the British under Admiral Rodney.

In December, 1782, the American officers at Newburgh petitioned Congress that instead of granting them half-pay for life, which had been promised but never paid, that body should vote them full pay for five years, and pay the arrearages then due. The unwarrantable delay of Congress in acceding to this reasonable request, so provoked

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the officers, that but for the influence of Washington, they would at unce have marched in arms to Philadelphia. At the earnest representation of their case to Congress by the commander-in-chief, the request of the officers was granted.

On the 19th of April, just eight years after the battle of Lexington, peace was proclaimed to the army. A critical duty now devolved upon Washington and the national legislature. This was the disbandment of the army, the members of which, after carrying the country triumphantly through the gloomy struggle for freedom, were now to be turned penniless to their ruined homes by the very power which had employed them. By relying on that patriotism which had ever shown itself capable of any sacrifice, and aided by the influence of Washington's popularity, Congress made the experiment. The old troops submitted patiently; but eight of the new levies marched from Lancaster, surrounded the state-house, and there kept the members of the national legislature imprisoned for three hours. Washington hurried a strong detachment after them; but the riot was quelled before he arrived.

New York was evacuated by the British in November, and entered on the 25th by General Washington, Governor Clinton, and a large number of citizens and military. On the 4th of December the commander took leave of his officers at Francis's tavern; after which he proceeded to Annapolis, where Congress was then sitting, and resigned, Dec. 23. He then retired to Mount Vernon. Meanwhile the independence of the United States had been acknowledged by Sweden, Denmark, Spain, and Russia. The final treaty of peace was signed at Paris, September 3, by David Hartley, on the part of George III., and John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay, on the part of the United States.

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