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while, they made a furious assault on the left, which, with great difficulty, was sustained. General Coffee charged their flank, when they were driven into a marsh. Being enticed from this, they were once more defeated, and their warriors cut to pieces. The conflict on the American right terminated in a similar manner.

On the 14th of March, General Jackson, with about three thousand men, commenced another expedition against the Creeks. The first point of attack was the fortress of Tohopeka, defended by about one thousand warriors. The assault was conducted by General Coffee on one side, and General Jackson on the other, assisted by cannon and musketry. When these two forces arrived at the breastworks, a contest ensued, which, for obstinacy and bloodshed, has been rarely surpassed in Indian warfare. No quarter was asked or received by either party. When, towards evening, the action closed, a wretched, heart-broken remnant, was all that remained of the Creek warriors. Only four men had been taken prisoners, together with three hundred women and children. Five hundred and fifty-seven warriors were found dead upon the ground, besides a great number who pershed in attempting to cross the river. Fifty-five Americans were Killed, and one hundred and forty-six wounded. Immediately after this action the American general marched to the Hickory ground,

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where he concluded treaties of peace with most of the Indian tribes in that vicinity.

HE naval events of this year were not less glorious than those of 1812. On the 23d of February, the Hornet sloop-of-war, Captain Lawrence, fell in with the brig Peacock, of twenty guns, Captain Peake; and, after an action of thirty minutes, reduced her to a complete wreck. The Americans lost one killed, and three

wounded. The Peacock sunk before all her crew could be removed, carrying with her three Americans and nine British. For his gal

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lantry in this action, Lawrence was promoted to the command of the Chesapeake. He found several of the officers sick, many of the crew newly enlisted, and the remainder dissatisfied at the withholding of their prize-money. Being unfortunately too unmindful of these incidents, Lawrence sailed on the first of June from Boston, in quest of the British frigate Shannon. Unknown to Lawrence, this vessel had recently been fitted out with a picked crew and superior equipment, and had sent a challenge for the Chesapeake one day after the sailing of the latter, but which, unfortunately, Lawrence did not receive. The action commenced at half-past five; and in a very short time the fire from the Shannon proved so destructive that the Chesapeake's sailing-master, and four lieutenants, were killed or wounded, and her rigging was so much injured that she fell aboard the enemy. Captain Lawrence was also wounded, but remained on deck giving his orders with perfect composure. Soon after, the British commander, Captain Broke, boarded with his marines, when Lawrence, receiving a third and mortal wound, was carried below, while issuing his noble order, "Don't give up the ship." The handful on deck were soon overpowered; and, for the first time during the war, the British flag was placed over an American frigate. In this desperate and sanguinary battle Captain Broke was wounded, his first lieutenant killed, and seventy-nine others killed or wounded. The Chesapeake lost seventy-seven killed, and about ninety-seven wounded. The death of the gallant Lawrence spread a feeling of deep sorrow throughout the country.

N August, Captain Allen, in the brig Argus, after a very successful cruise, was met by the British war-sloop Pelican, of rather superior force. A battle ensued, [August 14,] which, after lasting an hour and a half, terminated in the capture of the American vessel,-her captain, first lieutenant, and many of the seamen, being severely wounded, most of her rigging shot away, and the British frigate Sea-Horse heaving in sight. Subsequently Captain Allen died of his wounds, and was buried in England. The mortification caused by this event was, in some measure,

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dissipated by the capture of the British brig Boxer, [September 4,] of fourteen guns, by Lieutenant Burrows, in the brig Enterprise, of fourteen guns.

This year, like the former, was noted for the enterprise and success of the American privateers against the enemy's commercial vessels. Victories were sometimes gained even over English armed

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ships. Few naval actions were ever more desperate and gallant than that fought by the Privateer, Decatur, of seven guns and one hundred and three men, with the schooner Dominica, of fifteen guns and eighty-eight men, in which the latter, after a two hours' action, was carried by boarding.

During this year the Emperor of Russia offered his services to mediate between England and the United States, as This was accepted by PreAdams, Albert Gallatin, and

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the common friend of both countries. sident Madison, who named John Q. James A. Bayard, as commissioners. But Great Britain declined to treat under the mediation of Russia, proposing a direct negotiation at London or Gottenburg. This the President accepted, and added Henry Clay and Jonathan Russell to the commissioners already appointed.

During the session of Congress, a loan of twenty-five million dollars, and the issue of treasury notes for five millions, were authorized, and provisions made for the increase of the army and the better defence of the sea-coast.

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HE opening of this campaign on the northeastern frontier was not calculated to dispel the gloomy feelings with which the Americans had been oppressed by the result of former operations in that quarter. The termination of the war in Spain had enabled the British to send over large detachments of "Wellington's veterans," flushed with victory and eager to add, to their already brilliant fame, the renown of performing a triumphant campaign in America.

Late in March, General Wilkinson sent one division of his army under General Brown, to Sackett's Harbour, and then marched against the enemy at La Cole Mill. After cannonading this place without making the least impression, he returned to Plattsburg, having lost, in killed and wounded, one hundred men. The British acknowledge a loss of sixty. He was soon afterwards superseded by General Izard. This was followed by a descent of the enemy

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