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formation, and publication of a biennial catalogue, for the use of Congress and the public likewise, of all the officers, civil and military, of the United States, with their compensation, the state where born and where employed; and also the names, force, and condition of all the vessels belonging to the United States, when and where built. This Register informs Congress, and through them the people, the exact number and location of all the officers of the United States, and the amount required for their support.

§ 571. 3. Authenticity of Commissions. It is necessary that all commissions of public officers should be rendered authentic by certain signs and signatures. For this purpose, it is provided that all commissions shall be signed by the President, who is the appointing power, and sealed with the seal of the United States. This seal is kept in the Department of State, and affixed to all civil commissions which have been signed by the President. There is also in the Department of State a Seal of Office, used by the Secretary to authenticate copies of records and papers, which copies are received as evidence equally with the originals.

§ 572. 4. Patent Laws, and Copyrights;-The Patent Office is under the control of the Secretary of State. The provision of the Constitution under which patents are obtained, has already been discussed.

§ 573. The laws for obtaining patents require, 1. That those who obtain patents should be either citizens or aliens having resided in the country two years. 2. That it be obtained by petition to the Secretary, in a form prescribed. 3. That on presentation of such petition, thirty dollars must be paid into the Treasury of the United States. 4. There must be a specification or description of the art, invention, or discovery for which the patent is obtained. This must describe not only the form and construction, but the mode of using the

1 Acts of February 21st, 1793, and April 17th, 1800.

machine, &c. It must mention whether it is an improvement, or a new machine. It must be without reference to drawing or model, and must be signed by the applicant, before two witnesses. 5. This must be accompanied by an oath, or affirmation, that the applicant is the true inventor, &c. 6. If not a citizen, the applicant must make oath that the same has not, to his knowledge and belief, been used in this or any foreign country, and that he has resided in this country two years. 7. When the patent is for a machine, a perspective drawing must accompany the specification; and when it is complicated, there must be sections of the interior, and if required, a model. If it be for a com

position of matter, sufficient must be deposited for experiment. 8. When there are two applicants for the same invention, the law provides for the appointment of three arbitrators, one by each party, and one by the Secretary of State.

§ 574. When patents are violated, the trespasser must pay to the patentee three times the actual damage proved

to have been sustained.

§ 575. An inventor may assign his right before the patent has issued, and the assignee may take out a patent, or he may assign the patent after it is obtained.

§ 576. Copyrights are secured to the authors of books, maps, charts, and musical composition, by simply depositing in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the district in which the author or proprietor lives, a copy of the title of such work, which the Clerk records. He must also deposite, in said Clerk's office, a copy of the work, within six months after its publication.

§ 577. The time for which copyrights are taken out is twenty-eight years, and at the expiration of that time, the author, or his widow, or children, may renew the right for fourteen years longer, upon condition of record

1 Act of February 3d, 1831.

ing the title a second time, six months previous to the expiration of the former term, and causing the title to be published in one or more newspapers for the space of four weeks.

§ 578. The author must likewise give notice, by advertisement in or on the work, that it is entered according to act of Congress.

§ 579. In the case of books, the penalty infringing a copyright is the forfeiture of every volume so printed to the author, and the forfeiture for every sheet printed, or printing, of the sum of fifty cents, one-half to the author, and one-half to the United States; and in addition, to pay the author all the damages, which he may prove or recover, on a special action upon the case.

§ 580. We have now enumerated the several duties which devolve upon the Department of State, and the mode in which they are performed. These duties are performed by the Secretary, assisted by clerks, messengers, watchmen, &c.

For the officers in the State Department, see Table.

2. OF THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT.

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§ 581. The object of this department is to manage the moneyed concerns of the government. It was created by the act of September, 1789. The general duties of the Secretary of the Treasury are to prepare and digest plans for the improvement and management of the public revenue, and for the support of the public credit. execute such services relative to the sale of lands as may be required of him: to make reports, and give information to either branch of the legislature, in person or writing, respecting all matters referred to him by the Senate or House of Representatives, or which shall pertain to his office.

§ 582. To perform the details of these duties, they have been distributed among eleven sub-departments, viz. The 1st comptroller; the 2d comptroller; the 1st,

2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th auditors; the treasurer; register; solicitor; and land offices. At the head of each of these sub-divisions is a separate officer, charged with specific duties, and who has under him a number of inferior officers.

§ 583. 1. The Secretary of the Treasury himself prepares the annual report to be laid before Congress of the state of the National Finances; prepares plans for the improvement of the revenue;—reports in answer to the calls of Congress, and gives a general superintendence to all the branches of the Department.

§ 584. 2. The first comptroller1 examines all accounts settled by the first and third auditors, and certifies the balance thereon to the register; countersigns warrants drawn by the Secretary of the Treasury, if authorized by law; reports to the Secretary the official forms to be used in the different offices. He superintends the preservation of the public accounts, subject to his revision, and provides for the regular payment of all money which may be collected.

the first.

§ 585. 3. The second comptroller is independent of It is the duty of this officer to revise and certify the accounts stated in the offices of the second, third, and fourth auditors; in his office is kept a record of the accounts settled, showing the balances due to and from the United States; a record of all the requisitions for money drawn by the Secretaries of the War and Navy Departments; on its files are placed all contracts involving the payment of money within these departments. It is the duty of this comptroller to keep an account with each specific appropriation, and to make such statements of the disbursements as may be required by law.

The decisions of the comptrollers upon all matters of account submitted to them, is final.

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In the mode of disbursing money from the Treasury, there is a system of checks provided, which gives perfect security to the national funds. Money, which has been appropriated, may by the President and Secretaries be advanced to the public agents, but those agents must render their accounts to the comptrollers, and be by them admitted before the payment will be legal. Accounts in general must first be audited, and then be certified by the comptroller.

This officer receives and

§ 586. 4. First Auditor. This officer receives all accounts accruing in the Treasury Department, and in relation to the revenue and civil list; and after examination, certifies the balance, and transmits the accounts and vouchers to the first comptroller for his decision. § 587. Second Auditor. settles, 1st. All accounts relative to the pay, subsistence, and forage of the army and officers, with the clothing of servants, &c. &c. 2d. The accounts pertaining to the clothing and purchasing departments. 3. All accounts for the contingent disbursements of the army, for which no specific appropriations are made by Congress. 4. Accounts relative to the hospital stores, drugs, medicines, &c., and the claims of private physicians for services rendered officers and soldiers. 5. Accounts relating to the recruiting department. 6. Accounts relating to the ordnance department, arsenals, the armament of new fortifications, and the arming of the militia. 7. Accounts relating to the national armories. 8. Accounts appertaining to disbursements in the Indian department, such as pay of agents, presents, annuities, contingencies, &c.

§ 588. 6. Third Auditor. The duty of this officer extends to the auditing of all accounts for the quartermaster's department, for money, and property; the same as to accounts for subsistence, and for fortifications; for the Military Academy, for roads, surveys, and other internal improvements; for revolutionary invalids, and

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