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take any other conveyance from an Indian, of any land within the bounds of the United States, except it be included by some treaty made by the United States with the Indians: and it is a misdemeanor for any one not employed under the authority of the United States, directly or indirectly to treat with any nation or tribe of Indians, for the title or purchase of any land held by them.

617. The Superior courts in each of said territorial limits, and the Circuit and other courts of the United States, of similar jurisdiction in criminal causes, are invested with full power and authority to hear and adjudicate all such crimes and offences.

§ 618. By the same act, it is lawful for the military force of the United States to apprehend any person who may be found in the Indian country, over and beyond the boundary line; that is, intruders.

§ 619. For the purpose of carrying on a proper trade with the Indians, the superintendents of Indian Affairs, and the agents, under the direction of the President, are authorized to grant licenses to trade with the Indians. These licenses are granted to citizens, and to none others. Those who take licenses are obliged to enter into penal bonds, in sums proportioned to their capital, conditioned for the due observance of the laws regulating trade and intercourse among the Indians.

§ 620. All purchases for and on account of Indians, for annuities, presents, &c. &c. are made by Indian agents and governors of territories, acting as superintendents. In all trials in which an Indian and a white man are parties, the burden of proof shall rest upon the white man, in every case in which an Indian shall make out a presumption of title. For the purpose of superintending the Indian intercourse, an officer is appointed by the President, called a Superintendent of Indian Affairs.

Act of May 6, 1822.

§ 621. Licenses to trade with the Indians are not granted to any but citizens. Foreigners, who go into any of the Indian territories within the limits of the United States, are subject to fine and imprisonment.

§ 622. 2. Civilization of the Indians. For this object, the United States have from time to time used various means. To promote civilization among the friendly Indians, and to secure the continuance of their friendship, it was enacted, that the President of the United States might furnish them with domestic animals, implements of husbandry, goods, and money at his discretion; and might also appoint such persons, from time to time, to reside among them, as he may think fit.

§ 623. The President2 was also authorized to take such measures as he may think expedient, to prevent the vending or distributing spirituous liquors among the Indians.

§ 624. In addition to these enactments, Congress, by the act of March 3d, 1819, authorized the President to employ persons of good moral character to instruct them in the mode of agriculture suitable to their condition, and for teaching them reading, writing, and arithmetic, to be governed by such rules and regulations as the President may prescribe.

§ 625. The United States have expended much money and employed many agents upon the objects contemplated by these provisions, but little progress has ever been directly made in the civilization of the Indians. The frontier tribes have always retained their original barbarism. The Cherokees, Choctaws, &c. who have continued within the bosom of the white settlements, have made some little progress in the arts of civilized life.

§ 626. 5. Bounty Land Office. This is an office in

1 Act of 1816. National Calendar.

2 Act of March, 1802, Sect. 21. 3 Force's

which claims for military bounty lands, originating in the Revolutionary and late war, are examined, and from which military bounty land-warrants issue.

§ 627. 6. Office of the General Staff. This is the His duty is to comoffice of the Commander-in-Chief. mand the army; to arrange the military force in the best manner; to superintend the recruiting service; to order courts-martial, and decide in all cases except those in which life is concerned, or the commission of an officer.

army

§ 628. 7. Adjutant-general's Office. In this office are deposited the records which refer to the personnel of the from the earliest period of the government. In this office, military appointments and commissions are made out and registered; enlistments recorded; monthly returns of the troops received and preserved. All orders from Head Quarters, and all regulations and general orders of the War Office, are communicated through the Adjutant-general. In this office, the annual returns of the militia, arms, accoutrements, &c. are deposited, as likewise the appointments and commissions of the officers of the militia of the District of Columbia are registered and distributed.

§ 629. 8. Engineer Department. The chief of the Engineer Department is stationed at the seat of government, and directs and regulates the duties of the corps of engineers, and of such topographical engineers as may be attached to it; he is also inspector of the Military Academy, and charged with its correspondence.1 This Bureau has § 630. 9. Topographical Bureau. charge of all topographical operations, and surveys for military purposes and for internal improvement, and of the maps, drawings, and documents in relation to those duties.

§ 631. 10. Ordnance Department. The senior officer of Ordnance is stationed at the seat of government, and charged with the general superintendence of its duties.

1 Force's National Calendar.

632. 11. Quartermaster's Department. The object of this department is to insure the supplies and facilitate the movements of the army. The Quartermaster-general is stationed at Washington, and has, under the direction of the Secretary at War, the exclusive control of all the quartermasters, and assistant quartermasters, and of all the officers and agents acting for the department. It is the duty of the Quartermaster-general and his agents to provide quarters and transportation for the troops, and transportation for military stores, camp equipage, provisions, &c. &c.; provide for opening and repairing roads, bridges, &c. He purchases all forage, fuel, stationary, &c.; provides all horses, wagons, boats, and materials for building barracks, hospitals, stables, and bridges. Officers of the Quartermaster's department make all contracts for the supplies of the army, and have the right to make payment for all supplies, which by regulation they have the right to contract for. No officer is allowed to be concerned, directly or indirectly, for himself or others, in any contract with any department of the government, nor in the purchase of any claim on government. Whenever private grounds, buildings, or property are occupied by the troops of the United States, the Quartermaster must make reasonable compensation to the proprietor. Every officer in the Quartermaster's department gives bonds to the United States, conditioned for the faithful performance of his duty.

§633. 12. Purchasing Department. The Commissarygeneral of Purchases purchases1 on the orders and estimate of the war department, all clothing, camp equipage, saddles, and all articles required for the public service of the army of the United States, except such as are ordered to be purchased by the Ordnance, Quartermaster's, Subsistence, and Medical Departments. The Paymaster

§ 634. 13.

Pay Department.

1 Force's National Calendar.

general is stationed at the seat of Government, and is charged with the military responsibilities of this department in all its details. The subordinate officers of the pay department are subject only to the orders of the The troops Paymaster-general and Secretary at War. are paid every two months, or as near it as is possible. § 635. 14. Subsistence Department. The Commissary-general of Subsistence makes estimates of expenditures for his department, purchases subsistence for the army, makes payment to contractors, arranges his assistants, &c.

$636. 15. The Surgeon-general-is stationed at Washington, and is the director and accounting officer of the Medical Department. He issues all orders and instructions relative to the professional duties of the medical staff, and receives such reports from them as is necessary to the proper performance of their duties. He receives quarterly reports of the sick from each officer, with such remarks as may explain the nature of the diseases of the troops and the practice adopted. He receives from every surgeon and assistant surgeon having charge of public property, semi-annual returns of the same, and also annual requisitions for the supplies required for each hospital. It is his duty to make all such returns to the Secretary at War as may be necessary to explain all the concerns of the department under his charge, with such remarks relative to the improvements in practice and police, clothing, &c. of the army, as may seem to be required for the preservation of health, and the good of the public service.

NAVY DEPARTMENT.

§ 637. The Navy Department was not created until some time after the departments of State, War, and Treasury were in efficient operation. The office of Secretary of the Navy was erected by the act of the 30th of April, 1798. He has a general superintendence of the naval establishment, and issues all orders to the navy. He is by

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