ability able accuracy accurate acquired acquisition adaptation amount animal attached attention become Book cause Chapter combined Compare complete condition contest continue copy correct described desired determine developed difficulties direction effect efficient elements eliminated enable errors exact example exercise experience fact factors finally finger fixed formed gains give given habits higher human important improvement increase individual interest keys kind learners learning process learning to typewrite less letter letter-making movements linkage machine matter means measure ment mental method minute mistakes mode of response native nature necessary normal occur organism originated particular performance position possible practice present problem produce progress proper Psychology reaction record selected sequence situation skill speed stage stimulus strokes substitute task teacher things tion typist various words writing written wrong
الصفحة 349 - There is no more miserable human being than one in whom nothing is habitual but indecision, and for whom the lighting of every cigar, the drinking of every cup, the time of rising and going to bed every day, and the beginning of every bit of work, are subjects of express volitional deliberation. Full half the time of such a man goes to the deciding, or regretting, of matters which ought to be so ingrained in him as practically not to exist for his consciousness at all. If there be such daily duties...
الصفحة 351 - ... singled out. Silently, between all the details of his business, the power of judging in all that class of matter will have built itself up within him as a possession that will never pass away. Young people should know the truth of this in advance. The ignorance of it has probably engendered more discouragement and faintheartedness in youths embarking on arduous careers than all other causes put together.
الصفحة 347 - No matter how full a reservoir of maxims one may possess, and no matter how good one's sentiments may be, if one have not taken advantage of every concrete opportunity to act, one's character may remain entirely unaffected for the better. With mere good intentions, hell is proverbially paved. And this is an obvious consequence of the principles we have laid down. A
الصفحة 349 - The more of the details of our daily life we can hand over to the effortless custody of automatism, the more our higher powers of mind will be set free for their own proper work.
الصفحة 49 - When a modifiable connection between a situation and a response is made and is accompanied or followed by a satisfying state of affairs, that connection's strength is increased : When made and accompanied or followed by an annoying state of affairs, its strength is decreased.
الصفحة 31 - ... that it has on muscles; it causes them to grow and it probably also improves their internal condition so that they act more readily and more strongly. The growth, in the cortex, of dendrites and of the end-brushes of axons that interlace with the dendrites, must improve the synapses between one neuron and another, and thus make better conduction paths between one part of the cortex and another, and also between the cortex and the lower sensory and motor centers. The law of exercise has thus a...
الصفحة 141 - ... and its result might similarly be rehearsed, and thus practice in dealing with a situation might be obtained in the absence of the actual situation. This use of ideas occurs frequently in man, but in animals there is no clear evidence of it. Fourth, by a combination of the first with the second or third of the above uses of ideas, some feature of the present situation might suggest a reaction learned in previous experience; the consequences of this reaction might be mentally rehearsed, and its...
الصفحة 196 - We believe that by no device is it possible to gain freedom in using the higher-order habits until the lower have been so well mastered that attention is not diverted by them.
الصفحة 338 - ... sensation. Thence it pushes on, over association neurones in the brain to motor neurones, over which it passes down the spinal cord again to muscles, and ends in some movement. In the pathway which it traverses it leaves its impression, and, thereafter, when the first neurone is excited, the nervous current tends to take the same pathway and to end in the same movement. It should be emphasized that the nervous current, once started, always tends to seek outlet in movement. This is an extremely...
الصفحة 196 - Bryan found results that led him to conclude as regards the telegraphic language: " (1) that by no device is it possible to gain freedom in using the higher language units until the lower have been so mastered that the attention is not diverted by them; and (2) that it is, nevertheless, wise at all stages to practice with the highest language units possible, and thus learn all the units in their proper setting.