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faid office; appointing all officers of the land forces in the fervice of the United States, excepting regimental officers; appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commiffioning all officers whatever in the service of the United States; making rules for the government and regulation of the faid land and naval forces and directing their operations.

The United States in Congress affembled fhall have authority to appoint a committee to fit in the recefs of Congrefs, to be denominated "a committee of the ftates," and to consist of one delegate from each state, and to appoint such other committees and civil officers as may be neceffary for managing the general affairs of the United States, under their direction; to appoint one of their number to prefide, provided that no perfon be allowed to ferve in the office of prefident more than one year, in any term of three years; to afcertain the neceffary fums of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate and apply the fame for defraying the public expenses; to borrow money or emit bills on the credit of the United States, tranfmitting every half year to the respective states, an account of the fums of money fo borrowed or emitted; to build and equip a navy; to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requifitions from each ftate for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such state; which requifition fhall be binding, and thereupon the legiflature of each ftate fhall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and cloath, arm and equip them in a foldier-like manner, at the expense of the United States; and the officers and men fo cloathed, armed and equipped, fhall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congrefs affembled: But if the United States in Congrefs affembled fhall, on confideration of circumftances, judge proper that any ftate fhould not raise men, or fhould raise a smaller number than its quota, and that any other state should raise a greater

number of men than the quota thereof, fuch extra number shall be raised, officered, cloathed, armed and equipped in the fame manner as the quota of such state, unless the legislature of fuch state shall judge that fuch extra number cannot be fafely fpared out of the fame; in which case they fhall raife, officer, cloath, arm and equip as many of fuch extra number as they judge can be fafely fpared. And the officers and men fo cloathed, armed and equipped fhall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congrefs affembled.

The United States in Congrefs affembled, fhall never engage in a war nor grant letters of marque and reprifal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor afcertain the fums and expenfes neceffary for the defence and welfare of the United States or any of them; nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the United States, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of veffels of war to be built or purchafed, or the number of land or fea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine ftates affent to the fame; nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day, be determined, unless by the votes of a majority of the United States in Congrefs affembled.

The Congrefs of the United States fhall have power to adjourn to any time within the time within the year, and to any place within the United States, fo that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of fix months, and fhall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except fuch parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances or military operations, as in their judgment require fecrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each state on any question, fhall be cntered on the journal, when it is defired by any delegate; and the delegates of a ftate or any of them, at his or their request, shall be furnished with a tranfcript of the

faid journal, except fuch parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legiflatures of the feveral states.


The committee of the states, or any nine of them, fhall be authorized to execute, in the recefs of Congrefs, fuch of the powers of Congrefs, as the United States in Congrefs affembled, by the confent of nine ftates, fhall from time to time think expedient to vest them with; provided that no power be delegated to the faid committee, for the exercife of which, by the articles of confederation, the voice of nine ftates, in the Congrefs of the United States affembled, is requifite.


Canada acceding to this confederation, and joining in the measures of the United States, fhall be admitted into and entitled to all the advantages of this Union : But no other colony fhall be admitted into the fame, unless such admiffion be agreed to by nine states.


All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed, and debts contracted by or under the authority of Congress, before the affembling of the United States, in purfuance of the prefent confederation, fhall be deemed and confidered as a charge against the United States, for payment and fatisfaction whereof, the faid United States and the public faith are hereby folemnly pledged.


Every state shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congrefs affembled, on all questions which by this confederation are fubmitted to them. And the articles of this confederation fhall be inviolably obferved by every state, and the union fhall be perpetual; nor fhall any alteration, at any time hereafter, be made in any of them; unless fuch alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the Legiflatures of every state.

AND WHEREAS it hath pleased the Great Governor of the World to incline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively reprefent in Congrefs, to approve of, and to authorise us to ratify the faid articles of confederation and perpetual union: KNOW YE, that we, the underfigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpofe, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our refpective conftituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm, each and every of the faid articles of confederation and perpetual union, and all and fingular the matters and things therein contained. And we do further folemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they fhall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congrefs affembled, on all queftions which by the faid confederation are fubmitted to them; and that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the states we respectively represent; and that the union fhall be perpetual.

IN WITNESS Whereof, we have hereunto fet our hands in Congress.

DONE at Philadelphia, in the state of Pennsylvania, the 9th day of July, in the year of our Lord, 1778, and in the third year of the independence of America. The aforefaid articles of confederation were finally ratified on the first day of March, 1781; the state of Maryland having, by their members in Congrefs, on that day acceded thereto, and completed the fame.

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