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lienable rights; that among thefe are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted among men, deriving their juft powers from the confent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of thefe ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation on fuch principles, and organizing its powers in fuch form, as to them shall seem moft likely to effect their fafety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate, that governments long established should not be changed for light and tranfient caufes; and accordingly all experience hath fhewn, that mankind are more difpofed to fuffer while evils are fufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and ufurpations, pursuing invariably the fame object, evinces a defign to reduce them under abfolute defpotifm, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future fecurity. Such has been the patient fufferance of thefe Colonies; and fuch is now the neceffity which conftrains them to alter

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their former fyftems of government. history of the present king of Great-Britain is a history of repeated injuries and ufurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these States. To prove this, let facts be fubmitted to a candid world.

He has refufed his affent to laws the most wholesome and neceffary for the public good.

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and preffing importance, unless fufpended in their operation till his affent fhould be obtained; and when fo fufpended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pafs other laws for the accommodation of large diftricts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature; a right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depofitory of their public records, for the fole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. 1990 27

He has diffolved reprefentative houses repeatedly, for oppofing with manly firmness his invafions on the rights of the people.

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He has refused, for a long time after fuch diffolutions, to caufe others to be elected; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of 'annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercife; the State remaining in the mean time expofed to all the danger of -invasion from without, and convulfions within.

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He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpofe obftructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither; and railing the conditions of new appropriations of lands.

He has obftructed the administration of juftice, by refufing his affent to laws for eftablishing judiciary powers.

He has made judges dependent on his will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their falaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and fent hither fwarms of officers to harrafs our people and eat out their fubftance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, tanding armies, without the confent of our legiflatures.

He has affected to render the military independent of, and fuperior to, the civil power.

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He has combined with others to fubject us to a jurifdiction foreign to our conftitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his affent to their acts of pretended legiflation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our trade with all parts the world:

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For impofing taxes on us without our confent :

For depriving us, in many cafes, of the benefits of trial by jury;

For transporting us beyond feas to be tried for pretended offences;

For abolishing the free fyftem of English laws in a neighbouring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries, fo as to render it at once an example and fit inftrument for introducing the fame abfolute rule into thefe colonies :

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments;

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For fufpending our own legislatures, and de◄ claring themselves invefted with power to legiflate for us in all cafes whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection, and waging war against us.

He has plundered our feas, ravaged our coafts, burnt our towns, and deftroyed the lives of our people.

He is, at this time, tranfporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, defolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumftances of cruelty and perfidy fcarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high feas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themfelves by their hands.

He has excited domestic infurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian favages, whofe known rule of warfare is an undistinguished deftruction of all ages fexes, and conditions.

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