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Refolved, nem. con. 1. That they are entitled to life, liberty, and property; and have never ceded, to any fovereign power whatever, a right to dispose of either without their confent.

Refolved, n. c. 2. That our ancestors were, at the time of their emigration from the Mother-Country, entitled to all the rights, liberties, and immunities, of free and natural-born fubjects within the realm of England,

Refolved, n. c. 3. That, by fuch emigration, they either forfeited, furrendered, nor loft, any of thofe rights.

Refolved, 4. That the foundation of English liberty, and of all free government, is a right in the people to participate in their Legiflative Council; and as the English Colonists are not reprefented, and, from their local and other circumftances, cannot properly be represented in the British Parlia ment, they are entitled to a free and exclufive power of legiflation, in their feveral Provincial Legiflatures, where their right of reprefentation can alone be preferved, in all cafes of taxation and internal polity, fubject only to the negative of their Sovereign, in fuch manner as has been heretofore used and accustomed: but, from the neceffity of the cafe, and a regard to the mutual interefts of both countries, we chearfully confent to the operation of fuch Acts of the British Parliament as are, bona fide, reftrained to the regulation of our external commerce, for the purpose of fecuring the commercial advantages of the whole Empire to the Mother-Country, and the commercial benefits of its refpective members, excluding every idea of taxation, internal or external, for raifing a revenue on the subjects in America without their confent.

Refolved, n. c. 5. That the refpective Colonies are entitled to the Common Law of England, and, more especially, to the great and ineftimable privilege of being tried by their peers of the vicinage, according to the courfe of that law.

Refolved,

Refolved, 6. That they are entitled to the benefit of fuch of the English Statutes as exifted at the time of their colonization, and which they have, by experience, respectively found to be applicable to their feveral local and other circumftances.

Refolved, n. c. 7. That thefe, his Majefty's Colonies, are likewife entitled to all the immunities and privileges, granted and confirmed to them by Royal Charters, or secured by their feveral codes of Provincial Laws.

Refolved, n. c. 8 That they have a right peaceably to affemble, confider of their grievances, and petition the King; and that all profecutions, prohibitory proclamations, and commitments for the fame, are illegal.

Refolved, n. c. 9. That the keeping a standing army in these Colonies, in times of peace, without the confent of the legislature of that colony in which fuch army is kept, is against law.

Refolved, n. c. 10. It is indifpenfibly neceffary to good government, and rendered effential by the English Conftitution, that the conftituent branches of the legislature be independent of each other; that, therefore, the exercife of legiflative power, in feveral Colonies, by a Council appointed during pleasure by the Crown, is unconftitutional, dangerous, and deftructive to the freedom of American legislation.

All and each of which, the aforefaid Deputies, in behalf of themselves and their conftituents, do claim, demand, and infift on, as their indubitable rights and liberties, which cannot be legally taken from them, altered or abridged by any power whatever, without their own confent, by their Reprefentatives in their several provincial legislatures.

Refolved, n. c. That the following Acts of Parliament are infringements and violations of the rights of the Colonists; and that the repeal of them is effentially neceffary, in order to refiore harmony be

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tween Great Britain and the American colonies, viz.

The feveral Acts of 4 Geo. III. ch. 15. and ch. 34. -5 Geo. III. ch. 25.-6 Geo. III. ch. 5.-7 Geo. III. ch. 41. and ch. 46.-8 Geo. III. ch. 22. which impofe duties for the purpofe of raifing a revenue in America, extend the powers of the Admiralty Courts beyond their ancient limits, deprive the American fubject of trial by Jury, authorife the Judges certificate to indemnify the profecutor from damages that he might otherwife be liable to, requiring oppreffive fecurity from a claimant of ships and goods feized, before he fhall be allowed to defend his property, and are fubverfive of American rights.

Alfo 12 Geo. III. ch. 24. intituled, “An Act for the better fecuring his Majesty's dock-yards, magazines, fhips, ammunition, and ftores;" which declares a new offence in America, and deprives the American fubjects of a conftitutional trial by Jury of the vicinage,by authorifing the trial of any perfon charged with the committing any offence defcribed in the faid Act out of the realm, to be indicted and tried for the fame in any fhire or county within the realm.

Alfo the three Acts pafled in the laft Seffion of Parliament, for ftopping the port and blocking up the harbour of Bofton, for altering the charter and government of Matlachufett's-Bay, and that which is intituled," An Act for the better adminiftration of justice, &c."

Alfo the Act paffed in the fame Seffion for eftablishing the Roman Catholic religion in the Province of Quebec, abolishing the equitable fyftem of English laws, and erecting a tyranny there, to the great danger, from fo total a diffimilarity of religion, law, and government, of the neighbouring British Colonies, by the affiftance of whofe blood

and

and treasure the faid country was conquered from France.

Alfo the Act paffed in the fame Seffion for the better providing fuitable quarters for officers and foldiers in his Majefty's fervice in North-America.

Refolved, That this Congress do approve of the oppofition made by the inhabitants of the Maffachufett's-bay to the execution of the faid late Acts of Parliament; and if the fame fhall be attempted to be carried into execution by force, in fuch cafe, all America ought to fupport them in their oppofition.

Refolved, That the removal of the people of Boston into the country, would be not only extremely difficult in the execution, but fo important in its confequences, as to require the ut moft deliberation before it is adopted. But in cafe the Provincial Meeting of that Colony fhall judge it abfolutely neceffary, it is the opinion of this Congrefs, that all America ought to contribute towards recompenfing them for the injury they may thereby fuftain.

Refolved, That this Congrefs do recommend to the inhabitants of Maffachufett's-bay, to fubmit to a fufpenfion of the administration of juftice, where it cannot be procured in a legal and peaceable manner, under the rules of the charter, and the laws founded thereon, until the effects of our application. for a repeal of the Acts by which their charterrights are infringed, is known.

Refolved unanimoufly, That every person who fhall take, accept, or act under any commiffion or authority, in any wife derived from the act paffed in the laft Seffion of Parliament, changing the form of Government, and violating the charter of the Province of Maffachufett's-Bay, ought to be held in deteftation, and confidered as the wicked tool of that defpotifm which is preparing to deftroy those rights which God, nature, and compact, hath given to America.

Refolved

Refolved unanimoufly, That the people of Bofton and the Maffachufett's-bay, be advised still to conduct themselves peaceably towards his Excellency General Gage, and his Majefty's troops now ftationed in the town of Bofton, as far as can poffibly confift with their immediate safety and the fecurity of the town; avoiding and discountenancing every violation of his Majefty's property, or any infult to his troops; and that they peaceably and firmly persevere in the line in which they are now conducting themselves on the defenfive.

Refolved, That the feizing, or attempting to feize, any perfon in America, in order to tranfport fuch perfon beyond the fea, for trial of offences committed within the body of a county in America, being against law, will justify, and ought to meet with refiftance and reprifal.

A copy of a letter to General Gage was brought into Congrefs, and, agreeable to order, figned by the Prefident, and is as follows:

"Sir,

Philadelphia, Oct. 10, 1774.

"The inhabitants of the town of Bofton have informed us, the Reprefentatives of his Majefty's faithful fubjects in all the Colonies from NovaScotia to Georgia, that the fortifications erecting within that town, the frequent invafions of private property, and the repeated infults they receive from the foldiery, hath given them great reafon to fufpect a plan is formed very destructive to them, and tending to overthrow the liberties of America.

"Your Excellency cannot be a stranger to the fentiments of America with refpect to the late Acts of Parliament, under the execution of which thofe unhappy people are oppreffed; the approbation univerfally expreffed of their conduct, and the determined refolution of the Colonies, for the prefer vation of their Common Rights, to unite in their

oppo

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