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indulged of being able, from that source, to make any remittances for the discharge of foreign engagements.

"Thus circumstanced, after the most solemn deliberation, and under the fullest conviction that the public embarrassments are such as above represented, and that they are daily increasing, the committee are of the opinion that it has become the duty of Congress to declare, most explicitly, that the crisis has arrived when the people of these United States, by whose will and for whose benefit the Federal Government was instituted, must decide whether they will support their rank as a nation, by maintaining the public faith at home and abroad, or whether, for want of a timely exertion in establishing a general revenue, and thereby giving strength to the Confederacy, they will hazard not only the existence of the Union, but of those great and invaluable privileges for which they have so arduously and so honorably contended."

Resolved, That Congress agree to the said report.

And, to the end that Congress may remain wholly acquitted from every imputation of a want of attention to the interest and welfare of those whom they represent,

Resolved, That the requisitions of Congress of the 27th of April, 1784, and the 27th of September, 1785, cannot be considered as the establishment of a system of general revenue, in opposition to that recommended to the several States by the resolves of Congress of the 18th of April, 1783.

Resolved, That the resolves of Congress of the 18th of April, 1783, recommending a system of general revenue, be again presented to the consideration of the legislatures of the several States which have not fully complied with the same. That it be earnestly recommended to the Legislatures of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina, which have complied only in part with the said system, completely to adopt the same, and to the Legislatures of the States of Rhode Island, New York, Maryland, and Georgia, which have not adopted the said system, either in whole or in part, to pass laws, without further delay, in full conformity with the same. But, as it is highly necessary that every possible aid should, in the most expeditious manner, be obtained to the revenue of the United States, it is therefore recommended to the several States, that, in adopting the said system, they enable the United States in Congress assembled, to carry into effect that part which relates to the impost, so soon as it shall be acceded to.

Resolved, That, whilst Congress are denied the means of satisfying those engagements which they have constitutionally entered into for the

common benefit of the Union, they hold it their duty to warn their constituents that the most fatal evils will inevitably flow from a breach of public faith, pledged by solemn contract, and a violation of those principles of justice which are the only solid basis of the honor and prosperity of nations.

6. IN THE CONGRESS OF THE CONFEDERATION.

FRIDAY, MARCH 3, 1786.

The committee, consisting of Mr. Kean, Mr. Gorham, Mr. Pinckney, Mr. Smith, and Mr. Grayson, to whom were recommitted sundry papers and documents relative to commerce, and the acts passed by the States in consequence of the recommendations of Congress of the 30th April, 1784, report

That, in examining the laws passed by the States in consequence of the act of 30th April, 1784, they find that four States-namely, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, and Virginia-have enacted laws conformable to the recommendations contained in the act, but have restrained their operation until the other States shall have substantially complied.

That three States-namely, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Maryland-have passed laws conforming to the same, but have determined the time from which they are to commence-the first from the time of passing their act, in May, 1785; and the two latter from the 30th April, 1784.

That New Hampshire, by an act passed the 23d June, 1785, has granted full powers to regulate their trade, by restrictions or duties, for fifteen years, with a proviso that the law shall be suspended until the other States have substantially done the same.

That Rhode Island, by acts passed in February and October, 1785, has granted power for the term of twenty-five years to regulate trade between the respective States, and of prohibiting, restraining, or regu lating, the importation only of all foreign goods in any ships or vessels other than those owned by citizens of the United States, and navigated by a certain proportion of citizens; and also with a proviso restrictive of its operation until the other States shall have substantially complied. That North Carolina, by an act passed the 2d June, 1784, has granted powers similar to those granted by Rhode Island, relative to foreign commerce, but unrestrained in duration, and clogged with a clause that when all the States shall have substantially complied therewith, it shall become an article of confederation and perpetual union.

That they cannot find that the three other States-namely, Delaware, South Carolina, and Georgia-have passed any laws in consequence of the recommendations.

The result is, that four States have fully complied; three others have also complied, but have determined the time of commencement, so that there will be a dissimilarity in the duration of the power granted; that three other States have passed laws in pursuance of the recommendations, but so inconsonant to them, both in letter and spirit, that they cannot be deemed compliances; and that three other States have passed no acts whatever.

That, although the powers to be vested by the recommendations do not embrace every object which may be necessary in a well-formed system, yet, as many beneficial effects may be expected from them, the committee think it the duty of Congress again to call the attention of the States to this subject, the longer delay of which must be attended with very great evils. Whereupon,

Resolved, That the recommendations of the 30th April, 1784, be again presented to the view of the States of Delaware, South Carolina, and Georgia, and that they be most earnestly called upon to grant powers conformable thereto.

Resolved, That the States of New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and North Carolina, be solicited to reconsider their acts, and to make them agreeable to the recommendations of the 30th April, 1784.

Resolved, That the time for which the power under the recommendations of the 30th April, 1784, is to continue, ought to commence on the day that Congress shall begin to exercise it; and that it be recommended to the States of Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and Maryland, to amend their acts accordingly.

7. IN THE CONGRESS OF THE CONFEDERATION.

MONDAY, OCTOBER 23, 1786.

The committee, consisting of Mr. Pinckney, Mr. Smith, and Mr. Henry, to whom was referred an act of the Legislature of the State of Georgia, passed in consequence of the resolutions of the 30th April, 1784, respecting commerce, and the subject of the said recommendation, having reported

"That it appears, by the said resolutions, the United States in Congress assembled recommended to the legislatures of the several States to vest them, for the term of fifteen years, with powers to prohibit any goods, wares, or merchandise, from being imported into, or exported

from, any of the States, in vessels belonging to, or navigated by, the subjects of any power with whom these States shall not have formed treaties of commerce; that they also recommended to the legislatures · of the said States to vest the United States in Congress assembled, for the term of fifteen years, with the power of prohibiting the subjects of any foreign state, kingdom, or empire, unless authorized by treaty, from importing into the United States any goods, wares, or merchandise, which are not the produce or manufacture of the dominions of the sovereign whose subjects they are: provided, that to all acts of the United States in Congress assembled, in pursuance of the above powers, the assent of nine States shall be necessary. The committee have carefully examined the acts passed by the several States, in pursuance of the above recommendation, and find that the State of Delaware has passed an act in full compliance with the same; that the acts of the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, and Georgia, are in conformity to the said recommendation, but restrained in their operation until the other States should have granted powers equally extensive; that the States of Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, have passed laws agreeable to the said resolution, but have fixed the time at which the powers thereby invested shall begin to operate, and not left the same to commence at the time at which Congress shall begin to exercise it, which your committee conceive to have been the intention of the same; that South Carolina, by an act passed the 11th March, 1786, has invested the United States in Congress assembled with the power of regulating the trade of the United States with the West Indies, and all other external or foreign trade of the said States, for the term of fifteen years from the passing of the said act; that New Hampshire, by their act of the 23d of June, 1785, invested the United States in Congress assembled with the full power of regulating trade for fifteen years, by restrictions or duties, with a proviso suspending its operation until all the other States shall have done the same; that North Carolina, by their act of the 2d of June, 1784, has authorized their delegates to agree to and ratify an article or articles by which Congress shall be empowered to prohibit the importation of all foreign goods, in any other than vessels owned by citizens of the United States, or navigated by such a proportion of seamen, citizens of the United States, as may be agreed to by Congress, which, when agreed to by all the States, shall be considered as a part of the Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union. From the above review of the acts passed by the several States in consequence of the said recommendation, it appears that, though, in order to make the duration of the

powers equal, it will be necessary for the States of Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and South Carolina, so far to amend their acts as to permit the authorities therein granted to commence their operation at the time Congress shall begin to exercise them; yet still the powers granted by them and by the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Virginia, and Georgia, are otherwise in such compliance with the recommendation, that, if the States of New Hampshire and North Carolina had conformed their acts to the said resolution, agreeable to the urgent recommendation of Congress of 'the 3d of March last, the powers therein requested might immediately begin to operate. The committee, however, are of opinion that the acts of the States of New Hampshire and North Carolina manifest so liberal a disposition to grant the necessary powers upon this subject, that their not having complied with the recommendation of March last must be attributed to other reasons than a disinclination in them to adopt measures similar to those of their sister States. The committee, therefore, conceive it unnecessary to detail to them the situation of our commerce, languishing under the most ruinous restrictions in foreign ports, or the benefits which must arise from the due and equal use of powers competent to its protection and support, by that body which can alone beneficially, safely, and effectually exercise the same." Whereupon,

Resolved, That it be again earnestly recommended to the Legislatures of the States of New Hampshire and North Carolina, at their next session, to reconsider their acts, and pass them in such conformity with the resolutions of the 30th April, 1784, as to enable, on their part, the United States in Congress assembled to exercise the powers thereby invested, as soon as possible.

Resolved, That, as the extent and duration of the powers to be exercised by the United States in Congress assembled, under the recommendation above mentioned, ought to be equal, it be recommended to the Legislatures of Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and South Carolina, so far to amend their acts as to vest the powers therein contained for the term of fifteen years from the day on which Congress shall begin to exercise the same.

8. REMARKS ON PROCEEDINGS WHICH IMMEDIATELY LED TO THE FORMATION OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

These extracts show the final efforts made by the Congress of the Con federation to obtain from the States an increase of power for the purposes

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