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The remainder of the volume encompasses the first fourteen years of the Vietnam conflict, with primary attention being focused on the naval aspects. It includes the history of United States naval operations related to that conflict and the Navy's activities in the aid, advisory, and assistance programs. It also covers French and Vietnamese naval operations, the concepts of which would be further applied during the period of American involvement.

Two specialized works on the United States Navy and the Vietnam conAlict have already appeared. One, published by the Naval History Division, is Mobility, Support, Endurance, A Story of Naval Operational Logistics in the Vietnam War 19651968. Another, written by Richard Tregaskis under the auspices of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command, is Southeast Asia: Building the Bases, covering the SEABEES and the Navy's supervision of construction in the Vietnam War.

Together with such specialized works, it is hoped that the volumes in this basic series will serve as useful complements to the historical studies of the other military services, and to studies of the diplomatic, political, and psychological aspects of the Vietnam conflict, and that collectively these will lead to a better comprehension of American involvement in the complex, prolonged, and often controversial struggle.

The volume is the product of a team effort within the Naval History Division. Dr. Dean C. Allard and Dr. Oscar P. Fitzgerald joined me in researching, writing, reviewing, discussing, reorganizing, and revising the material since the start of the project in October 1970. Captain Paul B. Ryan, USN (Retired), was a member of the team until his detachment as Deputy Director of Naval History in June 1972. During tours with the division, Captain Vincent D. Maynard and Commander John C. Bruce carried out research and provided initial drafts on events leading to the initial granting of military aid and on the early advisory years. During a brief assignment in the Division, Dr. Robert H. Levine researched primary source materials on assistance to the Vietnamese Navy in the final period covered by this volume, writing a paper which provided helpful inputs. A special word of gratitude is due Mr. Edward J. Marolda and Ms. Nina F. Statum who carried out the difficult chores of editing final drafts of the manuscript, steering the work through the publication process and preparing the volume's index. The charts were drafted by DM2 Stephen J. Coy working under the supervision of Mr. Marolda. Mr. Charles R. Haberlein, Jr., and Mrs. Agnes F. Hoover aided with the location, selection, and reproduction of pictures for the volume. Under Mr. Walter B. Greenwood, the Navy Department Library

VI

staff-particularly Mr. Frederick S. Meigs, Mrs. Rita L. Halle, and Mr. James E. Smith-gave reference assistance to everyone who participated in the project. Miss Barbara A. Gilmore, Mr. Bernard F. Cavalcante, and others of the Operational Archives Branch provided competent and invaluable assistance in the location of source materials. A word of thanks is due the various members of the staff who typed many drafts during the various stages of this project. Senior Chief R. D. Barnett supervised these efforts during most of the later stages. Others deserving of special mention are Chief Glenn N. Pizer, Mrs. T. M. Schuster, Mrs. R. L. Kieltyka, Mrs. P. D. Sherrill, Chief E. J. Moore, and Mrs. Mary M. Edmison.

We are deeply indebted to Dr. Richard W. Leopold of Northwestern University, a member of the Secretary of the Navy's Advisory Committee on Naval History. With remarkable thoroughness, he reviewed a late draft of the manuscript. His scholarly, frank, and perceptive comments both on the overall work and on details were of immense value. These comments led to additional research, rearrangement, and rewording. The product was then reviewed by three other distinguished members of the Committee, Dr. Walter Muir Whitehill, Dr. John H. Kemble, and Dr. Gordon B. Turner. The final revision followed the receipt of their highly constructive comments. I am grateful also to other members of the Committee for their encouragement and advice. At various early stages I sought the advice of Professor William Reitzel, a colleague of mine at the time of establishing the Naval Long Range Studies Project and the Institute of Naval Studies. As always his views were sound and extremely helpful. Useful comments on portions of earlier drafts were provided by Admirals Robert B. Carney and Arleigh A. Burke, by Vice Admiral Lorenzo S. Sabin, and by others associated with events covered by the volume.

The final decisions as to the contents were made by me and the shortcomings are solely my responsibility.

EDWIN B. HOOPER
Vice Admiral, USN (Ret.)
Director of Naval History

VII

Charts and Illustrations

(Illustrations identified by numbers preceded by NH or KN are maintained in the United States Naval Photographic Center, and those preceded by 80G are located in the National Archives and Records Service.)

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British chart, 1754
Southeast Asia (chart) .....
Ancient kingdoms of Indochina (chart) ....
U.S. Frigate Constitution .......
Indochinese Peninsula, 19th Century (chart) ....
French and Russian ships at Saigon, late 1880s
Southeast Asia (chart) ............
Provinces of North Vietnam (chart) ......
Commodore Milton E. Miles ......
Damaged Japanese tanker aground, 1945 ..
Battleship Missouri at Istanbul
USS Franklin D. Roosevelt ...
Mekong Delta (chart) .............
French River Assault Group
Area of operations northeast of Saigon (chart)
Northern Tonkin, 1945–1946 (chart) ......
Northern Tonkin, with rail lines ...
French LCM in Indochina ..........
Amphibious operation in Annam ...
Naval patrol in Along Bay .. .........
Arromanches in the Gulf of Tonkin .......
Area of French-Viet Minh War in Tonkin (chart).
French LSSL .......
Naval patrol near Ninh Binh ...
French river patrol boats ............
Central Coast of Vietnam (chart)
Naval Training School, Nha Trang .....
Area of Laos Campaign, 1952 (chart)
French aircraft carrier La Fayette .....
Riverine patrol ...............
LCVPs on inland waterway ......
USS Caperton at Saigon ........

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