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the same flock was five and a half pounds per fleece. Something over forty thousand pounds of wool have been exported from the Territory this year, and the time is not far distant when it will be sent abroad into the markets of the world in the form of cloths, successfully competing with older countries for superior fineness and quality. With the raising of stock is closely connected dairying, only to supply home demands, will, so soon as a railroad is constructed through the country, become a source of much revenue to farmers, for the dairies of Orange, Herkimer, and other celebrated cheese and butter manufacturing counties of the East, do not produce either of better quality in flavor and richness than is ordinarily offered for sale in this market. With the use of a railway and refrigerating cars the stock-raisers of Montana will be able to place in the butchers' stalls of Atlantic cities both beef and mutton, which will become justly famed for its superior quality.

MONTANA.

Geographical.-Located between the 45th and 49th parallels of latitude, and extending westward from the border of Dakota to the summit of the Cœur de Alene Range, the Territory of Montana, the name itself indicating its most prominent topographic.l characteristics. Within its confines head two of America's grand rivers, which, springing from either slope of the great "continental back-bone," course rapidly away from each other, ultimately burying themselves in ocean depths, the one in the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico, and the other in the colder waves of the Pacific. The elevation of the cultivated valleys ranges from one-balf to three-fourths of a mile above the level of the sea, while the quartz and placer mines are found at a still higher altitude. a lis numerous mountain ranges are traversed by veins of precious and baser minerals; t valleys are well watered and exceedingly productive; its temperature is such tha diseases common to sea-board countries are here comparatively rare; its many magnificent cañons, its beautiful vales, cascades, and cataracts, its crystal streams, thermal springs, and other features, form a country which, for grandenr of scenery, fertility of soil, and healthfulness, is not surpassed, if even equaled, by any other section of the globe.

Historical.-This Territory was traversed by Captains Lewis and Clarke early in the present century, in their memorable expedition to the mouth of the Columbia River, and was obtained possession of by the Government, it being embraced in the Louisiana purchase of 1803. A score of years later Captain Bonneville moved through a portes of it, and in 1854, 1855, and 1856, Governor Stevens added much to the information of the world respecting its situation, resources, and climate. Later still (1859-60) Captan Raynolds, of the Corps of Engineers, accompanied by learned associates, explored partions of the valleys of the Yellowstone, Big Horn, Powder, and Missouri Rivers, wh some of their tributaries, thus penetrating some parts of the country which had previonsly been almost a terra incognita to the scientific world, if not to the adventures traders and trappers who had for years before traversed its streams and scaled its moctains. Until the beginning of the last decade, this vast extent of country was uninha ited, except by nomadic tribes of Indians, attachés of the Northwestern Fur Company, a a few Jesuit missionaries; then the immigration from Colorado, seeking placer mines e where, mostly flowed to the known gold fields of California and Oregon, but a few hav heard vague rumors of the foriner discovery of gulch mines far to the northward in amest the Rocky Mountains, turned hitherward, and found rich paying diggings at Bannack, 1 what was then (1862) a portion of Idaho, but which is now in the southern portion of this Territory. Attracted by the news of this discovery, glowing reports of w were disseminated abroad, new parties came, and other places of almost fabulous wea 2 were found, drawing from remote sections of country hopeful hearts and willing ba to glean from earth her precious hidden treasures. In May, 1864, the Territory was organized, and during the following winter its first legislature assembled at Bannaca In common with all other new countries, especially mining, this became invested wi its due share of ruffianly characters, who were subdued or expelled from the Territet only by the summary measures inaugurated by the respectable portion of the comp nity. Living within our borders are several powerful tribes of Indians, who, altho usually hostile, have so far refrained from making a general attack upon our exposed settlements. Occasionally predatory bands sweep down upon detached ranches, as drive away stock, murdering such unfortunate individuals as they may chance to re The threatening aspect of Indian affairs in the spring of 1867 induced the then acting governor of the Territory to call into service a battalion of volunteer militia, wh.re by patroling exposed frontiers, probably averted an impending war. In the winter d 1869-70 a military expedition penetrated into the winter quarters of one of the mei troublesome bands of Indians, and administered such punishment to them as has caused them to remain peaceable.

THOROUGHFARES

The situation of this Territory is comparatively isolated. It is only reached by let and teilsome routes; hence its healthy growth has been greatly retarded. From l'ort

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land, Oregon, during 1866, 1867, and 1868, many goods were shipped, via steamer, on the Columbia River, and from the head of navigation they were transported by pack train, following the general course of the North Fork of that river, and so entering the Territory from its western borders. But little immigration now passes over this route, and but a small amount of goods is now imported from that direction. Since the completion of the Union and Central Pacific Railways, Corinne, Utah Territory, has been one of the chief entrepots of the Territory, it being the point where merchandise brought for this market is transshipped to regular lines of freight teams, and where immigrants leave the railroad to come here, either by stage or wagon. Before this railroad was constructed wagon trains of goods and travelers from Omaha and San Francisco followed the overland road from either direction to Salt Lake City, and from thence, moving northward, crossed the Rocky Mountains and entered the Territory by the way of Bannack. Probably the larger part of the population and merchandise has been brought to the country by the way of the Missouri River. Leaving Saint Louis early in the spring and passing up that stream, the steamer received freights and passengers at different points, and usually reached Fort Benton after a long and tedious passage of over 3,000 miles. In summer the water becomes low, and the presence of bars and rapids in the upper portion of the river prevents the passage of large steamers over them, but boats of moderate draught can reach the mouth of the Muscleshell, it is claimed, at any time during the summer months. During the early years of the Territory an annual train of emigrants left Minnesota, and, crossing the plains of Dakota, passed up the northern side of the Missouri and entered the inhabited portion of the Territory by Fort Benton and Sun River. But this route, owing to its length, and the presence of unfriendly Indians along it, has been abandoned for several years. The routes named have been, and now are, the main ones by which the Territory receives its supplies.

MINERALOGICAL.

In the several mountain-chains, with their projecting spurs and outlying foot-hills, are found rich outcroppings of the ores of the precious and base metals, which are usually found associated together in a greater or less degree. Some lodes contain in their ores chemical combinations of nearly all of the more generally known metals, while others hold within their walls but few of the minerals associated with each other. The existence of the most valuable mineral in a lode usually determines its mineralogical classification among miners and prospectors, as well as others. Outside of gold, silver, and copper, none of the minerals are found in a metallic state, and the two last named only in very limited quantities, and then more or less alloyed with each other. Gold is found in placers and in quartz veins, while silver, copper, iron, lead, zine, antimony, and some of the other minor metals have been discovered in many sections of the Territory existing in large and well-defined ledges.

PLACER MINES.

Since the first discovery of gold on Gold Creek, in Deer Lodge County, and the later discovery of its existence in considerable quantities at Bannack, in 1862, and which led to the settlement and formation of the Territory, other placers of greater richness have been found, and yielding up a portion of their treasures, have, so to speak, paid so largely, as during the flush" years embraced in the period extending from 1864 to 1869. No new placers of any considerable extent have been discovered during the last two years, although it is but reasonable to suppose that many undiscovered ones exist. Some portions of the country have not been prospected at all, while others have been, as it were, barely "skimmed over." Comparatively extensive sections are known to contain gold, but it is distributed in such minute quantities through the gravel that it would not justify miners in constructing ditches and devoting time to obtain it, with the existing prices of labor and provisions. In some localities mines are believed to exist, but owing to their probable great depth, and the consequent expense which must necessarily be incurred ere "the pay streak" is reached, those who have both the time and means at their command do not feel disposed to hazard the loss of the one or the waste of the other.

Owing to the unusual lateness of the spring, and opening of the mining season this year, together with the scarcity of laborers, it is impossible that the amount of gold obtained will equal that of previous years. Carefully prepared estimates place the total yield of gold from placers in this Territory, up to the present, at about $130,000,000, although many claim that its production has been much greater.

The time is sure to come, at no distant day, when the known auriferous gulches will become exhausted, or cease to be remunerative, and then the country will have to depend for its permanent prosperity upon the sure and abundant wealth which will follow the complete development of its superior agricultural resources, and the system-, atic working of its extensive mineral-bearing ores.

QUARTZ MINES AND MINING.

Gold.-Owing to the excitement which has existed in this Territory, as well as else where, relative to silver-bearing quartz, but little work has been done during the past year in opening the many gold-bearing lodes scattered throughout the Territory. Labor. however, has been very generally prosecuted in those ledges which were known to contain gold in paying quantities, and which were in a forward state of development, ere this argentiferous fever attacked prospectors and quartz speculators. Owing to the high prices paid by placer owners to laborers,. work on quartz veins and the milling of ores become very greatly lessened during the summer months; this is caused by the inability and disinclination of mine and mill owners generally to pay the increased wages. Quartz mines and mills are run under greatly increased expenses in the summer over those incurred at other seasons of the year. The Whitlatch Union lode. near Helena, has sustained its well-known reputation for a plentiful yield of gold, while the Keating and Blacker mill, in Jefferson County, has turned out more gold bullion during the past summer than any of the other mills that have been run during that period. The total number of gold mills in the Territory (as near as can now be ascertained) is about thirty, containing from five to thirty stamps each, the aggre gate number reaching to nearly or quite five hundred. It is exceedingly dithen't to estimate the amount of gold retort produced by these mills, as their owners usually are very reticent about the matter, but it is probably safe to say that the total yield of gold from this source to date has not exceeded $10,000,000.

Silver.-During the first few years of the existence of the Territory the attention of its prospectors was almost entirely absorbed in seeking placer claims, and sometimes in discovering gold-bearing lodes. Although silver ledges were found and recorded still there were but few who took any interest in their development. Some attempts were made to extract the metal from the ore, but usually failed to do so profitably reason of the use of improper machinery, or inexperience in the right methods of treatment. It was not until the mines of Utah and Nevada kindled a silver excitement there, which, extending to this Territory over a year ago, caused prospectors to scon the hills in search of new ledges. New districts were organized and abandoned ones revisited and re-established; old locations were re-opened; smelting works were erected and several mills constructed, while the people have universally awakened to the fact that in this branch of mining industry Montana possesses elements wh.h when needed capital, proper machinery, and cheap transportation are at her comma și will cause her annually increasing production of silver bullion to add largely to the monetary wealth of the country. During the past summer smelting works have bez running with fair success on argentiferous galena ores at Helena, Jefferson, and Ar genta, the former on ores from the Legal Tender, North Pacific, and other lodes. It is claimed that the galena of the first named lode contains a larger percentage of s, vir than any other of like class in the Territory. At Phillipsburgh, in the pioneer silver dis trict of the country, the Saint Louis mill has been running nearly all summer on t rich but base ores of the Speckled Trout mine, producing large quantities of save bullion. There are now in the Territory six smelting works and four silver milis, (**.taining in the aggregate but twenty-six stamps. The production of silver in this Ier tory to date, owing to the comparatively recent beginning of the business, has not ex ceeded $500,000.

Copper.-Ledges of copper ores are found in several portions of the country, conta i ing a considerable percentage of that useful metal. But one attempt has ever lost made to reduce them to a metallic state, which, while successful, was abandoned by reason of the then large expense attending its reduction. There is a small stream it the Territory which, holding copper in solution, precipitates it on iron utensils left a

the water.

Iron.-Large quantities of iron ores in their several natural conditions are found 1 many districts, but no attempt has yet been made to utilize them. As immense beds of lignite and some bituminous coal are known to exist in nearly every county in the le ritory, it is highly probable that at no distant day iron mining and smelting VI become one of the profitable industries of the people.

Other ores.-" Bog" or "book" tin ore is found near Helena, in small quantis Cinnabar of an inferior quality is said to exist in the Territory, while zine is to x 20 sociated with many galena ores, while antimony is found in many silver-bearing Sulphur exists in large quantities near the Yellowstone, but no salt springs or Lea have yet been found in the Territory.

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Agates, sapphires, garnets, opals, topazes, and rubies are found in sections of the Te ritory, some of which have been found of very fair quality.

With its fertile valleys and mineral-bearing mountains, with its supply of ty and coal, with its water privileges and healthy climate, all that Montana needs a develop its vast natural resources is capital and railways, and then she will speed y become a great and prosperous State.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. BLAINE.
Surveyor General for Mon:-* &

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A.-Statement of condition of appropriation for surveys of public lands in Montana for fiscal year ending June 30, 1872.

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QUARTZ MINES AND MINING.

Gold.-Owing to the excitement which has existed in this Territory, as well as else where, relative to silver-bearing quartz, but little work has been done during the past year in opening the many gold-bearing lodes scattered throughout the Territory. Labor, however, has been very generally prosecuted in those ledges which were known to contain gold in paying quantities, and which were in a forward state of development, ere this argentiferous fever attacked prospectors and quartz speculators. Owing to the high prices paid by placer owners to laborers,. work on quartz veins and the milling of ores become very greatly lessened during the summer months; this is caused by the inability and disinclination of mine and mill owners generally to pay the increased wages. Quartz mines and mills are run under greatly increased expenses in the summer over those incurred at other seasons of the year. The Whitlatch Union lode, near Helena, has sustained its well-known reputation for a plentiful yield of golf, while the Keating and Blacker mill, in Jefferson County, has turned out more gold bullion during the past summer than any of the other mills that have been run dari g that period. The total number of gold mills in the Territory (as near as can now be ascertained) is about thirty, containing from five to thirty stamps each, the aggre It is exceedingly dithet gate number reaching to nearly or quite five hundred.

to estimate the amount of gold retort produced by these mills, as their owners usuany are very reticent about the matter, but it is probably safe to say that the total yield of gold from this source to date has not exceeded $10,000,000.

Silver.-During the first few years of the existence of the Territory the attention of its prospectors was almost entirely absorbed in seeking placer claims, and somet.mes in discovering gold-bearing lodes. Although silver ledges were found and recorded still there were but few who took any interest in their development.

Some attempts were made to extract the metal from the ore, but usually failed to do so profitably by reason of the use of improper machinery, or inexperience in the right methods of trea ment. It was not until the mines of Utah and Nevada kindled a silver excitement there, which, extending to this Territory over a year ago, caused prospectors to scor the hills in search of new ledges. New districts were organized and abandoned on revisited and re-established; old locations were re-opened; smelting works were erected and several mills constructed, while the people have universally awakened te the fact that in this branch of mining industry Montana possesses elements whack when needed capital, proper machinery, and cheap transportation are at her comma; i will cause her annually increasing production of silver bullion to add largely to ta monetary wealth of the country. During the past summer smelting works have running with fair success on argentiferous galena ores at Helena, Jefferson and Ar genta, the former on ores from the Legal Tender, North Pacific, and other lodes. It claimed that the galena of the first named lode contains a larger percentage of than any other of like class in the Territory. At Phillipsburgh, in the pioneer silver də trict of the country, the Saint Louis mill has been running nearly all summer on *." rich but base ores of the Speckled Trout mine, producing large quantities of savi bullion. There are now in the Territory six smelting works and four silver mills, o taining in the aggregate but twenty-six stamps. The production of silver in this Terr tory to date, owing to the comparatively recent beginning of the business, has not exceeded $500,000.

Copper-Ledges of copper ores are found in several portions of the country, conta:" ing a considerable percentage of that useful metal. But one attempt has ever t made to reduce them to a metallic state, which, while successful, was abandosed br reason of the then large expense attending its reduction. There is a small streak: the Territory which, holding copper in solution, precipitates it on iron utensils ieli

the water.

Iron.-Large quantities of iron ores in their several natural conditions are found ** many districts, but no attempt has yet been made to utilize them. As immense beds of lignite and some bituminous coal are known to exist in nearly every county in the it ritory, it is highly probable that at no distant day iron mining and smeltingl become one of the profitable industries of the people.

Other ores." Bog" or "book" tin ore is found near Helena, in small qua*** Cinnabar of an inferior quality is said to exist in the Territory, while zine is tous » sociated with many galena ores, while antimony is found in many silver-bearing pie Sulphur exists in large quantities near the Yellowstone, but no salt springs of Lea have yet been found in the Territory.

Agates, sapphires, garnets, opals, topazes, and rubies are found in sections of the Te ritory, some of which have been found of very fair quality.

With its fertile valleys and mineral-bearing mountains, with its supply of 115 and coal, with its water privileges and healthy climate, all that Montana needs l develop its vast natural resources is capital and railways, and then she will speed! become a great and prosperous State.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN E. BLAINE, Surveyor General for Mor

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