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life, finding their subsistence chiefly in game hunted by them; in the rice gathered in its wild state, and in the fish afforded by waters conveniently near. Comparatively little is done in the way of cultivating the soil. Certain bands have of late been greatly demoralized by contact with persons employed in the construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad, the line of which runs near one (the Fond du Lac) of their reservations. Portions of this people, however, especially those situated at the Bad River reservation, have begun to evince an earnest desire for self-improvement. Their agent says of them that "no people ever responded more readily to efforts on their behalf than the Chippewas of Lake Superior to the noble Christian policy of the Government." Many live in houses of rude construction, and raise small crops of grain and vegetables; others labor among the whites, and a number find employment in cutting rails, fence-posts, and saw-logs for the Government. In regard to the efforts made to instruct the children in letters, it may be said that, without being altogether fruitless, the results have been thus far meager and somewhat discouraging. The majority of the parents profess to wish to have their children educated, and ask for schools, but, when the means are provided and the work undertaken, the difficulties in the way of success to any considerable extent appear in the undisciplined character of the scholars, which has to be overcome by the teacher without parental co-operation, and in the great irregularity of attendance at school, especially on the part of those who are obliged to accompany their parents to the rice-fields, the sugar-camps, or the fishing-grounds. A few years ago the American Mission Board established a mission and boarding-school among the "Bad River" bands, which gave promise of future good; quite a number of the Indians became converted to the Christian religion; but the Board, in consequence of the unfriendly attitude of the Government agent, withdrew from the field, the Christian band of Indians became scattered, and the children of the school returned to their homes. Since then the property of the mission has passed into the possession of the Presbyterian Board of Missions and the school has been, under a contract with the Department of the Interior, re-established, with more encouraging prospects.

The Menomonees number thirteen hundred and sixty-two, and are located on a reservation of 230,400 acres in the northeastern part of Wisconsin. They formerly owned most of the eastern portion of the State, and, by treaty entered into with the Government on the 18th October, 1848, ceded the same for a home in Minnesota upon lands that had been obtained by the United States from the Chippewas; but, becoming dissatisfied with the arrangement, as not having accorded them what they claimed to be rightfully due, subsequently protested, and manifested great unwillingness to remove. In view of this condition of affairs, they were, by the President, permitted to remain in Wisconsin, and temporarily located upon the lands they now occupy, which were secured to them by a subsequent treaty made with the tribe on the 12th May, 1854. This reservation is well watered by lakes and streams, the latter affording excellent power and facilities for moving logs and lumber to market: the most of their country, abounding with valuable pine timber. A considerable portion of the Menomonees have made real and substantial advancement in civilization; numbers of them are engaged in agriculture; others find remunerative employment in the lumbering camp established upon their reservation, under the management of the Government agent, while a few still return, at times, to their old pursuits of hunting and fishing.

Under the plan adopted by the Department in 1871, in regard to cut

ting and selling the pine timber belonging to these Indians, 2,000,000 feet have been cut and driven, realizing $23,731; of which individua! Indians received for their labor over $3,000, the treasury of the tribe deriving a net profit of $5 per thousand feet. The agent estimates that for labor done by the Indians upon the reservation, at lumbering, and for work outside on railroads, during the past year, about $20,000 has been earned and received, exclusive of the labor rendered in building houses, raising crops, making sugar, gathering rice, and hunting for peltries. The work of education upon the reservations has been of late quite unsatisfactory, but one small school being now in operation, with seventy scholars, the average attendance being fifty. It is, however, in contemplation to open one additional large school at an early date. By act of Congress of February 13, 1871, provision was made for the sale of a portion of the Menomonee reservation; but as the consent of the Indians has not been obtained, no portion of their lands has been disposed of. They are now receiving a limited annuity (eight installments still due) of $16,179.06, under treaty of May 12, 1854, and also the interest on $154,438.89 United States and State bonds, held in trust for them by the Secretary of the Interior, amounting annually to $8,381.94. The Stockbridges and Munsees, numbering two hundred and fifty. occupy a reservation of 60,800 acres adjoining the Menomonees. The Stockbridges came originally from Massachusetts and New York. After several removals they, with the Munsees, finally located on their present reservation. Under the provisions of the act of February 6, 1871, steps are now being taken to dispose of all of their reservation, with the excep tion of eighteen sections best adapted for agricultural purposes, which are reserved for their future use. They have no treaty stipulations with the United States at the present time, nor do they receive any annui ties of any kind from the Government. They have, however, $6,000 invested in United States bonds, held in trust for them by the Secre tary of the Interior, the interest on which ($360) is used for educational purposes for the benefit of their children. These tribes-indeed, it may be said this tribe, (the Stockbridges,) for of the Munsees there probably remain not more than a half a dozen souls-were formerly an intelligent, prosperous people, not a whit behind the most advanced of the race, possessed of good farms, well instructed, and industrious. Unfor tunately for them, though much to the advantage of the Government, which acquired thereby a valuable tract of country for white settlement, they removed, in 1857, to their present place of abode. The change has proved highly detrimental to their interests and prospects. Their new reservation, the greater part poor in soil and seriously affected by wet seasons and frequent frosts, has never yielded them more than a meager subsistence. Many have for this reason left the tribe, and have been for years endeavoring to obtain a livelihood among the whites, main taining but little intercourse with those remaining on the reservation, yet still holding their rights in the tribal property. The result has beeu bickerings and faction quarrels, prejudicial to the peace and advance ment of the community. More than one-half of the present membership of the tribe, from both the "citizen" and the "Indian" parties, into which it has been long divided, are reported by the agent as having de cided to avail themselves of the enrollment provisions in the act of Congress of February, 1871, hereinbefore referred to, by which they will finally receive their share of the tribal property and become citizens of the United States. Those who desire to retain their tribal relation under the protection of the United States may, under the act adverted to, if they so elect by their council, procure a new location for theit

future home. This act may fairly be looked to as securing, with proper administration, a substantial improvement in the condition of these Indians. The school interests and religious care of this people are under the superintendence of Mr. Jeremiah Slingerland, a Stockbridge of much repute for his intelligence and his success in the cause of the moral and educational improvement of his people. Mr. Slingerland has for many years had charge of the schools of the tribe, numbering on the roll forty-six scholars, with an average attendance of thirty.

The Oneidas, numbering twelve hundred and fifty-nine, have a reservation of 60,800 acres near Green Bay. They constitute the greater portion of the tribe of that name (derived from Lake Oneida, where the tribe then resided,) formerly one of the "Six Nations." Two hundred and fifty of the Oneidas yet remain in New York on the reservations already described. Those who are found in Michigan are progressing in the arts of civilized life, many of them being intelligent, industrious, and ripe for citizenship. The progress of those best disposed and most advanced is, however, retarded by the fact of the tribal lands being held in common, by which the incentive to individual exertion is greatly impaired, and habits of industry and frugality discouraged. There are also some members who fail to keep pace with the progress of the tribe, in part, probably, from the same cause which hinders the improvement of those better disposed, but principally from that fatal curse of the Indian, the passion for intoxicating liquor, which is especially developed among those members of the tribe who are engaged in lumbering.

It is now believed that a large majority of the tribe favor the division of their lands and the allotment of parcels to families and individuals, a measure deemed to be of the first importance to the future welfare of this people, and which, it is suggested, should be the subject of legislative action, with a view to its consummation at the earliest practicable date. There are two schools for this tribe, having on the rolls two hundred and seventeen scholars, the average attendance being ninety. With additional accommodations, a much larger number could be brought under instruction. The Episcopal and Methodist denominations have long sustained mission stations upon the reservation with some success. They have comfortable houses for public worship, and the attendance upon the regular religious services of the Sabbath is good.

The Oneidas of Wisconsin participate in the permanent annuity in clothing, amounting to $4,500, per treaty of 1794, made with the "Six Nations" of New York, $1,000 of which sum is being used for their benefit. They have no other treaty relations at present with the Government, nor are there any other funds expended for their benefit, with the exception of a small amount for pay of teachers and support of schools.

The stray bands of Winnebagoes, Chippewas, and Pottawatomies number about sixteen hundred. They are scattered in small parties over the central and northern portions of the State, and are those members of the tribes named who did not remove when their respective tribes went west of the Mississippi. They receive no assistance from the Government, and subsist by cultivating small patches of corn and vegetables, by hunting, fishing, and gathering berries, and by working for the whites at certain seasons of the year; a number own a few acres; others rent small patches from the whites. They are accused of causing considerable annoyance to the farmers in some localities, and, on account of complaints having been made in this respect, Congress has appropriated funds to remove them to the tribes to which they respectively

belong, or to some place in the Indian territory south of Kansas. For various reasons their removal has not yet been undertaken. Indeed, while this may be found practicable, I doubt whether it can be thoroughly accomplished without additional and severe legislation on the part of Congress, as the Indians are attached to the country, and express great repugnance to their contemplated removal from it. On this account, and for the reason that they cannot be supposed to feel much interest in those from whom they have been so long separated. and by whom they might not be heartily welcomed, it is probable that those who should be removed against their will would return to their old haunts, and do the same as often as they should be removed therefrom. Such has been the case heretofore, not only with these, but with other Indians.


The Indians residing within the limits of Minnesota, as in the case of those of the same name living in Wisconsin, heretofore noticed, constitute a portion of the Ojibway or Chippewa nation, and com prise the following bands: Mississippi, Pillager, Winnebagoshish. Pembina, Red Lake, Boise Forte, Fond du Lac, and Grand Portage. The last three bands, being attached to the agency for the Chippewas of Lake Superior, have been treated of in connection with the Indians of Wisconsin. The five first-named bands number in the aggregate about six thousand four hundred and fifty-five souls, and occupy, or rather it is intended they shall ultimately occupy, ample reservations in the cen tral and northern portion of the State, known as the White Earth, Leech Lake, and Red Lake reservations, containing altogether about 4,672,000 acres, a portion of which is very valuable for its pine timber.

The condition of these Indians, except those upon the White Earth reservation, has been but little changed during the past year from that of several years preceding. Great difficulty is still experienced in inducing the Indians to remain permanently upon their reservations; a roving life is still preferred by many, their old haunts presenting more attractions for them than new homes, with the unavoidable neces sity of labor for subsistence. Yet, no inconsiderable number are already evidencing by their efforts, as well as by their professions, a new spirit of industry and enterprise. The past year has been one of trouble and unusual excitement on the part of both whites and Indians, on account of the ill-behavior of the Pillager band, and apprehensions of a serious outbreak were for a time entertained. Nine murders of citizens are reported to have been committed by individual Chippewas, mainly it not wholly of this band, and threats were made on the part of some of the Pillagers, which, if carried out, would have involved nearly all of the Indians of this section in hostilities. Happily, by the prompt arrival of United States troops upon the White Earth reservation, and more especially by the strong disapprobation of the conduct of the Pillagers expressed in council by the general body of Leech Lake Indians, and their evident purpose to unite with the Government in putting down any and all enemies of the peace, the crisis was passed, and comparative quiet has again been restored. In view of the atrocities committed by the Pillagers, and of the alarm occasioned thereby among the citizens of Minnesota, Governor Austin issued a proclamation requiring all Indians to remain upon their reservations under penalty of arrest, to be effected by the militia of the State, should it be found necessary. In the present condition of things, however, a compliance by all with this requirement

is simply impossible, and there is danger that, without the exercise of great prudence and forbearance on the part of the State authorities further and greater difficulties may arise. The "Otter Tail" Pillagers, to whom the difficulties referred to are principally due, have the right to a home on the White Earth reservation; they removed to it in 1871, but as they were not provided with the means of opening farms, nor with subsistence during the time necessary to raise a crop, they returned to their former haunts. They are now warned off from their grounds at Otter Tail by the State authorities. The larger portion of the Pillagers, together with the Winnebagoshish band, about fifteen hundred in number, live around Leech Lake; their general reputation for turbulence and worthlessness of character is well known and of long standing; still, there are those who seem willing and ready to work if assisted by the Government.

Agent Smith, in charge, says that their country is barren, with only, here and there, patches susceptible of tillage-accessible only by canoe or steamboat. In this connection, and adverting to the murders committed by the Pillagers, it is but just to notice that all lawlessness in Minnesota, in the region of the Indian reservations, is not confined to Indians. The murder of two Indians of the Otter Tail Pillagers for the offense of camping on a white man's ground is reported, while two others, who had been arrested at White Earth on suspicion of complicity in a murder, and lodged in jail for trial, were taken therefrom by a mob and hung. Such conduct can but have a pernicious effect upon the Indian mind, and tend to arouse a spirit of revenge and retaliation.

Mississippi bands.-These Indians reside in different localities. Most of them are on their reservation at White Earth; others are at Mille Lac, Gull Lake, and some at White Oak Point reservations. Upon the first-named reservation operations have been quite extensive in the erection of school-buildings, dwelling-houses, shops, and mills, and in breaking ground. At one time during the past summer there was a prospect of an abundant yield from 300 acres sown in cereals, but, unfortunately, the grasshoppers swept away the entire crop, and a second crop of buckwheat and turnips proved a failure. The Indians on this reservation are well-behaved and inclined to be industrious. Many of them are engaged in tilling the soil, while others are learning the mechanical arts; and they may, as a body, be said to be making considerable progress in the pursuits of civilized life. About one-half of the Indians at Gull Lake have been removed to White Earth; the remainder are opposed to removal, and will, in their present feeling, rather forfeit their annuities than change their location. The Mille Lac Chippewas, who continue to occupy the lands ceded by them in 1863, with reservation of the right to live thereon during good behavior, are indisposed to leave their old home for the new one designed for them on the White Earth reservation. Only about twenty-five have thus far been induced to remove. Their present reservation is rich in pine lands, the envy of lumber dealers, and there is a strong pressure on all sides for their early removal. They should have help from the Government, whether they remain or remove, and this could be afforded to a sufficient extent by the sale for their benefit of the timber upon the lands now occupied by them. Probably the Government could provide for them in no better way.

The White Oak Point Chippewas were formerly known as Sandy Lake Indians. They were removed in 1867 from Sandy Lake and Rabbit Lake to White Oak Point, on the Mississippi, near the eastern part

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