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removing superstitions and ceremonies. The Service Book, or Liturgy, was put out, reforming the officers of the Church, which, Hall says, "was gotten up under the general aim of pleasing both Papists and Reformers, taking out of the Papish Liturgy only so much as the Papists would stand to have taken out; and putting in only so much of the Scriptures as was the least that would satisfy the Protestants. Out of the Romish missals of Sarum, York, Hereford, and Bangor (for popery had never required a uniform liturgy), they compiled the morning and the evening service almost in the same form as it stands at present." This was put out with a view to harmonize the sentiments and worship of the reforming clergy and the Papists, between whom a very serious and radical conflict sprang up as soon as Edward's liberal reign began. The reforming clergy assailed images, holy water, consecrated candles, justification by sacraments, masses, absolutions, and ceremonials, while the Papists defended them. Such acts were passed by Parliament as amounted to a total change of the established religion, but these were in advance of light among the people. The great body of the priests and people had not yet understood the truth, and were not ripe for these external changes. But the conflict of views between the reforming clergy and the Papists waxed warmer and warmer, and their debate of words began to reach the crisis of violence; and the King interposed and required these contentions to cease, and signified his intention of having one uniform order throughout the realm, and till that order could be set forth, all manner of persons were forbidden to preach save by special license. The King issued his Service Book, prescribing one uniform order, and by act of parliament all divine offices were required to be performed according to it under pain of severe penalties. The people were unwilling to give up their ancient rituals; a liturgy was therefore adopted that went in the direction of the Reformation only as far as the times allowed; and those who got it up as the best that the state of the times would permit, were not satisfied with their own work, but desired to have carried the work of reforming the service of the Church much further. But owing to the want of scripture knowledge among the masses of the people, and the very limited extent to which genuine

reformation had been carried among them, all that King Edward and his reforming clergy could do, was to "draw up their Liturgy from Popish originals," and leave the rituals and vestments retaining as much of the shape, fashion, and savor of Popery as would render them not idolatrous, with the hope of further amendments when the times would allow them.

Mary next came into power, and being a zealous Papist, she at once restored the papal religion, the Pope to the headship of the Church, and tried to undo all that had been done in reformation of religion under Henry and Edward, and put to death many leading Protestants; and to escape her fiery and bloody hands, many others fled to other lands. John Rogers had the distinguished honor of being the Lord's first martyr under her hands. Profoundly learned, enlightened in the true doctrine of the Gospel, and receiving meekly the truth as it is in Jesus, he was among the first under Henry to cast off the idolatry of Rome, and spend his energies in aiding the work of translating the word of God into the English language, and in preaching the Gospel in its simplicity and power. For these things, after suffering imprisonment and passing through three different trials before the zealous friends. of popery, and always defending himself manfully, and while in his trials, many things "were put upon him to aggravate his sufferings, always preserving remarkable equanimity of mind, and finally yielding up his testimony with great joy." This is the man whose memory has always been precious to the hearts of God's people in all countries, and whose name, character, and piety the people of New England, a few years ago, took special care to honor. Forty years ago it was remarkable how uniformly the children throughout the United States first began to learn their A, B, C, in the New England Primer, presenting upon its front page John Rogers chained to a stake in the midst of flames of fire kept stirred up by Mary's executioners, his wife and children standing and weeping around him; and concluding with the Shorter Catechism of the Westminster Assembly.

Elizabeth succeeded to the throne, and was a Protestant. The exiles hastened home, and those Protestants who had hid themselves began to appear. But Elizabeth was not Protestant enough to risk the loss of her crown for the sake of giving

her people, at once, the Gospel in its purity. She used carnal policy in her manner of carrying on the Reformation. While she felt that it was important to uphold the Reformation, she also felt that it was important to conciliate her papal subjects, and consequently the public religion continued, for a time, in the same posture in which she found it; the popish priests kept their livings and went on celebrating mass; none of the Protestant clergy who had been ejected in the reign of Mary were restored; and orders were given against all innovations in religion without public authority. The acts of Henry and Edward were revived, restoring to the crown supremacy in the Church. These acts had been passed by Parliament, investing the crown with all jurisdiction in church and state, and giving to the prince authority to make laws, ceremonies, and constitutions, and without him no such laws, ceremonies, etc., could be of force. In Henry's time, "the Parliament had given to the king the prerogatives of infallibility, and bound themselves and the kingdom to receive upon trust, without question or examination, whatever dogmas or ceremonies the king and his prelates should be pleased to establish; and it was left to the civil courts to interfere with the ecclesiastical whenever it became a question what ecclesiastical requisitions were contrary to the laws and statutes of the realm." The leading Protestants, who had returned from exile, before leaving the continent, had been "pressed by the Reformers there to act with zeal and courage, and take care in the first beginnings to have all things settled upon sure and Bound foundations; and had come home under strong convictions that it was their duty to do so, and to make a bold stand for a thorough reformation." They immediately joined issue with these acts of Parliament and this supreme power of the crown in ecclesiastical matters. They objected to the absurdity of a lay person, and that, too, a woman, as in the present case, being the head of a spiritual body. The Queen explained that she did not, as head of the Church, pretend to be a spiritual person; nor intend to "exercise any ecclesiastical function in her own person; nor challenge authority to minister divine service in the Church; and that all that was intended in her claims to supremacy was that, under God, she had the sovereignty and rule over all persons born in her realms, either

ecclesiastical or temporal, so as no foreign power had, or ought to have, authority over them." The Protestants were willing to die in order to maintain her sovereignty thus far; but they did not believe that the government of the Church was monarchical, nor that any single person, layman or ecclesiastic, ought to assume the title of supreme head of the Church on earth. In the obvious sense of these acts of Parliament, and in pressing this idea they soon found that the Queen did not stand by her own explication, and that she did claim to be supreme head of the Church to the extent of the papal idea; and by the act of uniformity which she soon caused to be passed, and the rigor with which that act was carried out under her superintendence and direction, she made them feel her supremacy. They soon found that she claimed to be supreme in matters of faith, and to have the power to say what was agreeable to the word of God, or repugnant to it; to hold the keys of discipline; to be the ultimate judge in matters spiritual; to have power to ordain such ceremonies or rites as she might deem best; to nominate bishops and control their election, and suspend them from office at her pleasure; that no ecclesiastical court or synod could assemble but by a writ from her, and when assembled, do any business but such as she might lay before it, and that its acts could be of no force without her sanction. And she did, with a resolute will, exercise all these powers; resist all attempts of Parliament to restrain her in them, and exerted her whole strength in keeping the Reformation within such limits as were strictly consistent with these high claims. And during her reign the Reformation could not be carried beyond what was in keeping with them. She published fifty-three articles specifying wherein, and to what extent, the Reformation should go, and commanding her subjects to reform their religion so far and no farther; and her commands were carried out by her commissions of visitation and high courts of commission to the letter. She fixed by law the order of lessons to be read in divine service throughout the year, and allowed no discretion to ministers and people as to what portion of God's word would be most for edification at particular times. She went to the full length of her asserted prerogative in specifying minutely how ministers of the Gospel should be dressed while

officiating, and in appointing and regulating rites and ceremonies; and the Parliament even "empowered her to ordain and publish such farther ceremonies and rites as may be for the advancement of God's glory, and edifying his Church and the reverence of Christ's holy mysteries and sacraments." But she exercised her prerogative in all these things much to the grievance of the consciences of the stricter Protestants, and much in favor of her papal subjects. She caused King Edward's Liturgy to be reviewed, and all passages offensive to the Pope to be stricken out, and made such changes in it as tended to conciliate the Papists, restoring the practice of kneeling at the sacrament in adoration of the corporeal presence-restoring the Romish festivals and the Popish habits. When her real mind was understood, it was ascertained that she thought her brother had carried the Reformation too far, and she was unwilling to go to the same length to which he had gone. In King Edward's Liturgy all the Popish garments had been laid aside except the surplice; but she ordered the full Popish habit to be used, and being thus changed, the Liturgy was by Parliament given the force of law, and acts were passed requiring all the people to conform their worship to it (June 24, 1559).


At this time the Protestants were all of one faith. agreed in doctrines, but differed widely as to church government, discipline, and ceremonies. Some heartily conceded to the Queen all the authority in the Church which she claimed, and the acts of Parliament gave her. These were styled the Court Reformers. But the stricter Protestants, who began now to be styled in derision of their conscience and evangelical views of divine things, Puritans, did not believe that the crown ought to have such powers in the Church, and held that such powers were not agreeable to the Scriptures, nor to the natural rights of mankind. And we can not follow them in all the conflicts in which they engaged for the purpose of maintaining the honor and purity of Christ's laws and worship, and mark the spirit that inspired them, and feel the power of their arguments against the views of their adversaries and in support of their own, without feeling that the spirit of glory and of God did rest upon them, and that the Holy Ghost did, in a certain sense, speak in them. "There were many things

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