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or defend laws contrary to the law of God or nature; as it is written, 'Woe be to them that make wicked laws.' For kingdoms are the ordinance of God, wherein the wisdom and justice of God (that is, just laws) ought to rule."

VI. The Confession of Wirtemburg. This was drawn up in 1552, in Latin, and presented by the Duke of Wirtemburg and Tecca, through his ambassadors, to the council of Trent. The doctrine of this, on Magistracy, differs little from the foregoing.

VII. The Confession of France. This was first presented in French, in 1559, to Francis II, King of France, "in behalf of all the godly of that kingdom." It was presented, in 1561, to Charles IX. In 1566, it was published in Latin by the pastors of the French Churches, "to all other evangelical pastors." Though it is much the same with the preceding, yet as they were confined chiefly to the German Churches, and this concerns one of the principal kingdoms of Western Europe, we insert a few sentences. ART. 39. We believe that God would have the world to be governed by laws, and by civil government, that there may be certain bridles, whereby the immoderate desires of the world may be restrained; and that therefore He appointed kingdoms, commonwealths, and other kinds of principalities, whether they come by inheritance, or otherwise. * **Therefore, He hath also delivered the sword into the hands of magistrates; to wit, that offenses may be repressed, not only those which are committed against the second table, but also against the first. Therefore, because of the Author of this order, we must not only suffer them to rule, whom He hath set over us, but also give unto them all power and reverence, as unto His ambassadors and ministers, assigned of Him to execute a lawful and holy function. *** Therefore, we affirm that we must obey the laws and statutes, that we must pay tribute, and patiently endure the other burdens; to conclude, that we must willingly suffer the yoke of subjection, although the magistrates be infidels, so that the sovereign government of God do remain entire, and nothing diminished."

VIII. The Confession of the Church of England. This was inserted in the general Apology written by John Jerrell, Bishop of Sarum, in behalf of the English Churches, in 1562, and "agreed upon by the Archbishops and Bishops of both Provinces, and the whole clergy, in the Convocation holden at London, in the year 1562, for the avoiding of diversities of opinions, and for the establishing consent touching true religion." "ART. 37. OF THE CIVIL MAGISTRATES.-The Queen's Majesty hath the chief power in this realm of England, and other her dominions; unto whom the chief government of all estates of this realm, whether they be ecclesiastical or civil, in all causes doth appertain, and is not, nor ought to be, subject to any foreign jurisdiction.

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We give not to our princes the ministering either of God's word or of sacraments; *** but that only prerogative which we see to have been given always to all godly princes in holy Scriptures by God himself; that is, that they should rule all estates and degrees committed to their charge by God, whether they be ecclesiastical or temporal, and restrain with the civil sword the stubborn and evil doers."

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IX. The Latter Confession of Helvetia. This was written by the pastors of Zurich, in 1566, and approved and subscribed by the Tigurines, and their confederates of Berne, Schaffhausen, Sangalliæ, Rhetia, Mulhausen, and Bienne, and also by the churches of Geneva, Savoy, Poland, Hungary, and Scotland. "CHAP. 30. OF MAGISTRACY.The magistracy, of what sort soever it be, is ordained of God himself, for the peace and quietness of mankind; and so, that he ought to have the chiefest place in the world. *** His chiefest duty is, to procure and maintain peace and public tranquillity. * * * Let him govern the people committed to him of God, with good laws, made according to the word of God. * * Let him exercise judgment by judging uprightly; let him not accept any man's person, or receive bribes. * * Let him repress, yea and cut off such as are unjust, whether in deceit or by violence. For he hath not received the sword of God in vain.' Therefore, let him draw forth this sword of God against all malefactors, seditious persons, thieves, or murderers, oppressors, blasphemers, perjured persons, and all those whom God hath commanded him to punish or even to execute. * * * But if so be it be necessary to preserve the safety of the people by war, let him do it in the name of God; provided he have first sought peace by all means possible, and can save his subjects no way but by war. * * * For as God will work the safety of his people by the magistrate, whom he hath given to be, as it were, a father of the world; so all subjects are commanded to acknowledge this benefit of God in the magistrate. * Finally, let them pay all customs and tributes, and all other duties of the like sort, faithfully and willingly. And if the common safety of the country and justice require it, and the magistrate do of necessity make war, let them even lay down their life and spend their blood for the common safety and defense of the magistrate; and that in the name of God, willingly, valiantly, and cheerfully. For he that opposeth himself against the magistrate, doth procure the wrath of God against him. We condemn, therefore, all contemners of magistrates, rebels, enemies of the commonwealth, seditious villains and, in a word, all such as do either openly or closely refuse to perform those duties which they owe."

X. The Confession of Belgia. This was published in French, in the name of all the churches of Belgiæ, in 1566; and in 1579, in the public Synod of Belgium, was repeated, confirmed, and twined into the Belgian

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tongue. ART. 36.-We believe that the most gracious and mighty God did appoint kings, princes, and magistrates, because of the corruption and depravation of mankind; and that it is his will that this world. should be governed by laws, and by a certain civil government, for punishing the faults of men, and that all things may be done in good order among men. Therefore, he hath armed the magistrates with the sword, that they may punish the wicked and defend the good. ***Moreover, all men, of what dignity, condition, or state soever they be, ought to be subject to their lawful magistrates, and pay unto them subsidies and tributes, and obey them in all things which are not repugnant to the word of God."

XI. The Confession of Bohemia, sometimes called The Confession of the Waldenses. It was published in 1573, in many places, and approved by the University of Wirtemburg. A former one, substantially corresponding with this, was published as early as 1532, and approved by Luther and Melancthon. "CHAP. 16. OF THE CIVIL POWER, OR CIVIL MAGISTRATE.-Furthermore, it is taught out of holy Scripture, that the civil magistrate is the ordinance of God, and appointed by God; *** and is maintained to govern the people in those things which appertain to the life of this body here upon earth. * * * And that in regard to their duty they are especially bound hereunto, and that this is their peculiar charge, that they cherish among the people, without respect of persons, justice, peace, and all good things that appertain unto the time; that they protect and defend their peaceable subjects, their rights, their goods, their life, and their bodies, against those that wrong and oppress them, or do any ways indamage or hurt them; also, that against the unjust violence of the Turks, together with others that do the like, they do succor and defend them; and so serve the Lord God herein, that they bear not the sword in vain, but valiantly, courageously, and faithfully, use the same to execute the will and works of God therewith. ** * Moreover, the people also are taught concerning their duty, and by the word of God are effectually thereunto enforced; that all and every of them, in all things (so that they be not contrary unto God), perform their obedience to the superior power."

XII. The Confession of Scotland. This was first presented to and allowed by the three estates in Parliament, at Edinburg, in 1560; again ratified at the same place, and on the same authority, in 1567; and finally subscribed by the King and his household, at Holyrood House, January 28, 1581. It is generally supposed to be the production chiefly of John Knox. "ART. 24. OF THE CIVIL MAGISTRATE.-We confess and acknowledge empires, kingdoms, dominions, and cities, to be distincted or ordained by God; the powers and authority in the same, be

emperors in their empires, of kings in their realms, dukes and

princes in their dominions, and of other magistrates in their cities, to be God's holy ordinance. *** We farther confess and acknowledge, that such persons as are placed in authority, are to be beloved, honored, feared, and holden in most reverend estimation. *** And therefore, we confess and avow, that such as resist the supreme power doing that thing which appertaineth to his charge, do resist God's ordinance, and therefore can not be guiltless. And farther we affirm, that whosoever deny unto them their aid, counsel, and comfort, whilst the princes and rulers vigilantly travail in execution of their office, the same men deny their help, support and counsel to God, who, by the presence of his lieutenant, doth crave it of them."

XIII. The Confession of the Church in Ireland," agreed upon by the Archbishop and Bishops, and the rest of the clergy of Ireland, in the Convocation holden at Dublin, in 1615," etc. Art. II. Of the Civil Magistrate, is almost verbally that of the 37th Article of the Church of England, adopted in 1562.

XIV. The Synod of Dort, which was in session in 1618-19, adopted articles on five principal doctrines, not embracing, however, the subject of Civil Magistracy.

XV. The Confession of the Westminster Assembly; "agreed upon by the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, with the assistance of the Commissioners from the Church of Scotland, as a part of the Covenanted Uniformity in Religion betwixt the Churches of Christ in the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland; examined and approved by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, anno 1647, and ratified and established by Act of Parliament, anno 1649." The only difference between this Confession as modified and adopted by the Presbyterian Church in the United States, and as originally adopted at Westminster, on the subject of magistracy (in so far as previously quoted), is in the following section from the earlier form: "CHAP. 23. OF THE CIVIL MAGISTRATE.— *** 3. The civil magistrate may not assume to himself the administration of the word and sacraments, or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven; yet he hath authority, and it is his duty, to take order, that unity and peace be preserved in the church; that the truth of God be kept pure and entire ; that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed, all corruptions and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or reformed, and all ordinances of God duly settled, administered, and observed. For the better effecting whereof, he hath power to call Synods, to be present at them, and to provide that whatsoever is transacted in them be according to the mind of God."

XVI. The Second Book of Discipline: or Heads and Conclusions of the Policy of the Kirk of Scotland:-" Agreed upon in the General

Assembly, 1578; inserted in the registers of Assembly, 1581; sworn to in the National Covenant, revived and ratified by the Assembly, 1638; and by many other acts of Assembly; and according to which. the Church Government is established by law, anno 1592 and 1690." This account and the extracts here given are taken from the "Pardovan Collections." The only change made is in the orthography. "CHAP. 1. *** The civil power is called the power of the sword, and the other the power of the keys. The civil power should command the spiritual to exercise and do their office according to the word of God; the spiritual rulers should require the Christian magistrate to minister justice and punish vice, and to maintain the liberty and quietness of the kirk within their bounds. The magistrate commandeth external things for external peace and quietness among the subjects; the minister handleth external things only for conscience' cause, * * * The ministers exercise not the civil jurisdiction, but teach the magistrate how it should be exercised according to the word." This Second Book of Discipline contains much more that is valuable to our purpose, but want of space forbids further extracts."*

An apology may seem to be due for this extended quotation of Confessions upon a single point; but we wished to exhibit. the testimony of the whole Protestant world upon the subject

*The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, hold this doctrine: ART. 37. OF THE POWER OF THE CIVIL MAGISTRATES.-The power of the civil magistrate extendeth to all men, as well clergy as laity, in all things temporal; but hath no authority in things purely spiritual. And we hold it to be the duty of all men who are professors of the Gospel, to pay respectful obedience to the civil authority, regularly and legitimately constituted." In the Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church, is found: ART. 23. OF THE RULERS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.-The President, the Congress, the General Assemblies, the Governors, and the Councils of State, as the delegates of the people, are the Rulers of the United States of America, according to the division of power made to them by the Constitution of the United States, and by the Constitutions of their respective States. And the said States are a sovereign and independent nation, and ought not to be subject to any foreign jurisdiction." In a note to this Article, in the Discipline, it is said: "As far as it respects civil affairs, we believe it the duty of Christians, and especially of all Christian ministers, to be subject to the supreme authority of the country where they may reside, and to use all laudable means to enjoin obedience to the powers that be; and therefore, it is expected that all our preachers and people, who may be under the British, or any other government, will behave themselves as peaceable and orderly subjects." We need not quote from other church Confessions in the United States. The doctrines held by all of them, on the subject of Civil Magistracy, and the duty of obedience thereto, are substantially the same as those here given, and those of the Evangelical Churches of all countries.

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