The Fundamental Principles of Learning and Study
Warwick & York, Incorporated, 1920 - 239 من الصفحات
"The present volume is a rewriting of manuscript which the writer has used for some time as part of his lectures to students in educational psychology. The aim is especially to show how the results of general psychology and experimental psychology and of allied sciences can be put into use by the teacher and the student in the problems of learning and of study. In the chapters on Making the Appeal to the Student, and Attention and Sustained Effort, examples have been given from the writer's own studies and observations for the purpose of illustrating psychological principles involved and to suggest to teachers ways that have proved successful in the actual everyday work of the teacher. The writer thinks that The Habit Theory has not received its due in educational practice and perhaps not in educational thought. It is a principle which runs through the whole work of education and the adoption of it as the fundamental working principle of the teacher's work should help to bring the definiteness that is needed. If habits, including habitudes, dispositions and attitudes, are not all the results that education can show, we can see what is left out after we do our duty to the first and fundamental things. The general scheme of the book can be indicated by the following statement of some of the main thoughts: 1) The nature of education and of the educational process from the point of view of permanent results in the individual. 2) The necessity for permanent results of some kind and the nature of these results. 3) The process of learning, of making acquisitions which can be made more or less permanent and suggestions for the right direction of this learning process. 4) A discussion of how to make the best progress in learning. 5) The getting of not only specific but general improvement. 6) The factors that make for permanent results. 7) Modes of appeal for the purpose of arousing and directing the desired activities. 8) The development through lower to higher stages of attention, activity, and effort. 9) The development of the emotional and moral nature for permanent results in moral character. 10) Physical and physiological conditions that are involved in learning and study. 11) The problem of how to study, teaching to study, and of putting supervised study into the school. 12) The need for definite ends of education and the possibility of using the principles and facts presented herein to help towards greater definiteness of aim, of procedure and of obtaining recognizable and measurable end results so that the work of education shall approach in definiteness the achievement of other big business enterprises. The directions for students appearing in chapter 16 are practically unchanged from the early writing nearly three years ago. References at the ends of chapters indicate books and articles that seem to the author to be most useful to the teacher if he wishes to choose from a large number of possible references. Others may be equally good, but a selected bibliography seems to be most valuable"--Préface. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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acquisition action activity appears aroused associations attention attitude better bring cation cent cerebrum chapter Columbia University conditions of learning crete definite desire dispositions ditions Educational Psychology example experiments fact factors formed fundamental give groups heredity Hyperopia ical ideals ideas ility important impression improvement individual interest kind of material kinds of learning knowledge Latin learner lesson matter means memory ment mental mental Psychology Meumann mind Minneapolis minutes modifying nervous system number of repetitions observational learning observers obverse and reverse old habit one's organization period permanent retention plateaus possible practice principle problem progress Psychology pupils QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS reasoning recall remember student SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY supervised study teacher teaching telegraphy tendencies things thought tion transfer typewriting valuable whole method writes
الصفحة 41 - Nothing we ever do is, in strict scientific literalness, wiped out. Of course, this has its good side as well as its bad one. As we become permanent drunkards by so many separate drinks, so we become saints in the moral, and authorities and experts in the practical and scientific spheres, by so many separate acts and hours of work.
الصفحة 55 - Seize the very first possible opportunity to act on every resolution you make, and on every emotional prompting you may experience in the direction of the habits you aspire to gain. It is not in the moment of their forming, but in the moment of their producing motor effects, that resolves and aspirations communicate the new "set
الصفحة 61 - Asceticism of this sort is like the insurance which a man pays on his house and goods. The tax does him no good at the time, and possibly may never bring him a return. But if the fire does come, his having paid it will be his salvation from ruin.
الصفحة 87 - Let no youth have any anxiety about the upshot of his education, whatever the line of it may be. If he keep faithfully busy each hour of the working day, he may safely leave the final result to itself. He can with perfect certainty count on waking up some fine morning to find himself one of the competent ones of his generation, in whatever pursuit he may have singled out.
الصفحة 61 - Keep the faculty of effort alive in you by a little gratuitous exercise every day.
الصفحة 17 - Organic matter, especially nervous tissue, seems endowed with a very extraordinary degree of plasticity of this sort; so that we may without hesitation lay down as our first proposition the following: that the phenomena of habit in living beings are due to the plasticity of the organic materials of which their bodies are composed.
الصفحة 22 - It is a matter of universal experience that every kind of training for special aptitudes is both far more effective, and leaves a more permanent impress, when exerted on the growing organism than when brought to bear on the adult. The effect of such training is shown in the tendency of the organ to
الصفحة 105 - One conclusion seems to stand out from all these facts more clearly than anything else, namely, that in learning to interpret the telegraphic language, it is intense effort which educates.