Afro-Latin America, 1800-2000
Oxford University Press, 2004 - 284 من الصفحات
While the rise and abolition of slavery and ongoing race relations are central themes of the history of the United States, the African diaspora actually had a far greater impact on Latin and Central America. More than ten times as many Africans came to Spanish and Portuguese America as the United States.
In this, the first history of the African diaspora in Latin America from emancipation to the present, George Reid Andrews deftly synthesizes the history of people of African descent in every Latin American country from Mexico and the Caribbean to Argentina. He examines how African peooples and their descendants made their way from slavery to freedom and how they helped shape and responded to political, economic, and cultural changes in their societies. Individually and collectively they pursued the goals of freedom, equality, and citizenship through military service, political parties, civic organizations, labor unions, religious activity, and other avenues.
Spanning two centuries, this tour de force should be read by anyone interested in Latin American history, the history of slavery, and the African diaspora, as well as the future of Latin America.
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... libertos or manumisos ( manumitted ones ) . As minors , they were required to serve their mothers ' masters , receiving wages for their work . But when they reached the age of majority ( between 18 and 21 , depending on the country ) ...
... libertos . Con- sumption could not be sustained without income , and income could not be earned without work . In ... libertos who remained in the countryside . Here , too , the first priority for libertos was to redefine their living ...
... libertos promptly moved in to squat on such lands . Landowners and their administrators sought to negotiate rental arrangements with the squatters , but in a situation of abundant land and scarce labor , as a local official in Colom ...